Frances Trollope - Religious Revivalism and WomenReligious Revivalism, violating every principle of Christ, is often the result of un-religious competition between preachers. The Change Agent device has always been to seduce unstable young women by well-understood devices of manipulation. The most powerful agent of change is a revivalist with the looks and success the young girls (or strange men) want in their own lives. Frances Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans, written during her travels in America during 1827-1831 gives many first-hand observations of religious revivalism and the conditions necessary to bring it about.
Her observations agree with the historical certainty that this out of mind phenomenon is the product of men trying to be king of the mountain for personal power and "seeing Godliness as a means of financial gain." Among sincere evangelists, it still moved under the need of some visual sign that my new theology is superior to yours. While she did not witness Cane Ridge she encountered some of the identical movements still operating. She was in West Tennessee and on to Cincinnati in 1828. Writers of the American Restoration Movement repeat many of the same events and were embarassed in later life over their use of the "anxious seat" and the need for some sign produced in the physical bodies of the "converts."
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 1828. Absence of Amusements; Revivals; Unhappy Influence of Religion on Women in America.
I never saw any people who appeared to live so much without amusement as the Cincinnatians. Billiards are forbidden by law, so are cards. To sell a pack of cards in Ohio subjects the seller to a penalty of fifty dollars. They have no public balls, excepting, I think, six, during the Christmas holidays. They have no concerts. They have no dinner parties.
They have a theatre, which is, in fact, the only public amusement of this triste little town; put they seem to care little about it, and either from economy or distaste, it is very poorly attended. Ladies are rarely seen there, and by far the larger proportion of females deem it an offence against religion to witness the representation of a play.
It is in the churches and chapels of the town that the ladies are to be seen in full costume:
and I am tempted to believe that a stranger from the continent of Europe would be inclined, on first reconnoitering the city, to suppose that the places of worship were the theatres and cafes of the place.No evening in the week but brings throngs of the young and beautiful to the chapels and meetinghouses, all dressed with care, and sometimes with great pretension;
it is there that all display is made, and all fashionable distinction sought.
The proportion of gentlemen attending these evening meetings is very small,
but often, as might be expected, a sprinkling of smart young clerks make this sedulous display of ribbons and ringlets intelligible and natural.Were it not for the churches, indeed, I think there might be a general bonfire of best bonnets, for I never could discover any other use for them.
The ladies are too actively employed in the interior of their houses to permit much parading in full dress for morning visits. There are no public gardens or lounging shops of fashionable resort, and were it not for public worship, and private tea-drinkings, all the ladies in Cincinnati would be in danger of becoming perfect recluses.
The influence which the ministers of all the innumerable religious sects throughout America have on the females of their respective congregations,approaches very nearly to what we read of in Spain, or in other strictly Roman Catholic countries.
There are many causes for this peculiar influence. Where equality of rank is affectedly acknowledged by the rich, and clamorously claimed by the poor,distinction and pro-eminence are allowed to the clergy only.
This gives them high importance in the eyes of the ladies.
I think, also, that it is from the clergy only that the women of America receive that sort of attention which is so dearly valued by every female heart throughout the world.With the priests of America the women hold that degree of influential importance
which, in the countries of Europe, is allowed them throughout all orders and ranks of society, except, perhaps, the very lowest;
and in return for this they seem to give their hearts and souls into their keeping.
I never saw, or read, of any country where religion had so strong a hold upon the women, or a slighter hold upon the men.
I mean not to assert that I met with no men of sincerely religious feelings, or with no women of no religious feelings at all; but I feel perfectly secure of being correct as to the great majority in the statement I have made.
We had not been many months in Cincinnati when our curiosity was excited by hearing the " revival" talked of by every one we met throughout the town. " The revival will be very full"--
"We shall be constantly engaged during the revival"--were the phrases we constantly heard repeated, and for a long time without in the least comprehending what was meant;
but at length I learnt that the un-national church of America required to be roused, at regular intervals, to greater energy and exertion.
At these seasons the most enthusiastic of the clergy travel the country, and enter the cities and towns by scores, or by hundreds, as the accommodation of the place may admit
and for a week or fortnight, or, if the population be large, for a month; they preach and pray all day, and often for a considerable portion of the night, in the various churches and chapels of the place. This is called a Revival.
I took considerable pains to obtain information on this subject; but in detailing what I learnt I fear that it is probable I shall be accused of exaggeration; all I can do is cautiously to avoid deserving it. The subject is highly interesting, and it would be a fault of no trifling nature to treat it with levity.
These itinerant clergymen are of all persuasions, I believe, except the Episcopalian, Catholic, Unitarian, and Quaker.
I heard of Presbyterians of all varieties; of Baptists of I know not how many divisions; and of Methodists of more denominations than I can remember; whose innumerable shades of varying belief it would require much time to explain and more to comprehend.
They enter all the cities, towns, and villages of the Union in succession; I could not learn with sufficient certainty to repeat, what the interval generally is between their visits.These itinerants are, for the most part, lodged in the houses of their respective followers, and every evening that is not spent in the churches and meeting-houses, is devoted to what would be called parties by others, but which they designate as prayer-meetings.
Here they eat, drink, pray, sing, hear confessions, and make converts. To these meetings I never got invited, and therefore I have nothing but hearsay evidence to offer, but my information comes from an eye witness, and one on whom I believe I may depend.
If one half of what I heard may be believed, these social prayer-meetings are by no means the least curious, or the least important part of the business.
It is impossible not to smile at the close resemblance to be tracedbetween the feelings of a first-rate Presbyterian or Methodist lady,
fortunate enough to have secured a favourite Itinerant for her meeting, and those of a first-rate London Blue,
equally blest in the presence of a fashionable poet. There is a strong family likeness among us all the world over.
The best rooms, the best dresses, the choicest refreshments solemnize the meeting.While the party is assembling,
the load-star (keynoter god) of the hour is occupied in whispering conversations with the guests as they arrive.They are called brothers and sisters, and the greetings are very affectionate. When the room is full, the company, of whom a vast majority are always women, are invited, intreated, and coaxed to confess before their brothers and sisters, all their thoughts, faults, and follies.
These confessions are strange scenes;
the more they confess, the more invariably are they encouraged and caressed.When this is over, they all kneel, and the Itinerant prays extempore.
They then eat and drink; and then they sing hymns, pray, exhort, sing, and pray again,
till the excitement reaches a very high pitch indeed. These scenes are going on at some house or other every evening during the revival, nay, at many at the same time,
for the churches and meeting-houses cannot give occupation to half the Itinerants, though they are all open throughout the day, and till a late hour in the night, and the officiating ministers succeed each other in the occupation of them.
It was at the principal of the Presbyterian churches that I was twice witness to scenes that made me shudder; in describing one, I describe both, and every one; the same thing is constantly repeated...
When the singing ended, another [priest] took the centre place, and began in a sort of coaxing affectionate tone, to ask the congregation if what their dear brother had spoken had reached their hearts?
Whether they would avoid the hell he had made them see? "Come, then!" he continued,
stretching out his arms towards them, "come to us and tell us so, and we will make you see Jesus, the dear gentle Jesus, who shall save you from it.But you must come to him! You must not be ashamed to come to him! This night you shall tell him that you are not ashamed of him; we will make way for you; we will clear the bench for anxious sinners to sit upon. Come, then! come to the anxious bench, and we will show you Jesus! Come! Come! Come!"
Again a hymn was sung, and while it continued,one of the three [priests] was employed in clearing one or two long benches that went across the rail,
sending the people back to the lower part of the church.The singing ceased, and again the people were invited, and exhorted not to be ashamed of Jesus,
but to put themselves upon "the anxious benches," and lay their heads on his bosom. "Once more we will sing," he concluded, "that we may give you time."
And again they sung a hymn.
And now in every part of the church a movement was perceptible, slight at first, but by degrees becoming more decided.
Young girls arose, and sat down, and rose again; and then the pews opened, and several came tottering out, their hands clasped, their heads hanging on their bosoms, and every limb trembling, and still the hymn went on;but as the poor creatures approached the rail their sobs and groans became audible. They seated themselves on the "anxious benches;"
the hymn ceased, and two of the three priests walked down from the tribune, and going, one to the right, and the other to the left,
began whispering to the poor tremblers seated there. These whispers were inaudible to us, but the sobs and groans increased to a frightful excess.
Young creatures, with features pale and distorted, fell on their knees on the pavement, and soon sunk forward on their faces;
the most violent cries and shrieks followed, while from time to time a voice was heard in convulsive accents, exclaiming,
"Oh Lord !" "Oh Lord Jesus !" "Help me, Jesus!" and the like.
Meanwhile the two priests continued to walk among them; they repeatedly mounted on the benches,and trumpet-mouthed proclaimed to the whole congregation, "the tidings of salvation,"
and then from every corner of the building arose in reply, short sharp cries of "Amen!" "Glory !" "Amen!"
while the prostrate penitents continued to receive whispered comfortings, and from time to time a mystic caress.
More than once I saw a young neck encircled by a reverend arm.
Violent hysterics and convulsions seized many of them, and when the tumult was at the highest,
the priest who remained above again gave out a hymn as if to drown it.
It was a frightful sight to behold innocent young creatures, in the gay morning of existence,thus seized upon, horror-struck, and rendered feeble and enervated for ever.Did the men of America value their women as men ought to value their wives and daughters, would such scenes be permitted among them?
One young girl, apparently not more than fourteen,was supported in the arms of another some years older; her face was pale as death; her eyes wide open, and perfectly devoid of meaning; her chin and bosom wet with slaver; she had every appearance of idiotism.
I saw a priest approach her, he took her delicate hand, "Jesus is with her! Bless the Lord !" he said, and passed on.
It is hardly necessary to say, that all who obeyed the call to place themselves on the "anxious benches"were women, and by far the greater number, very young women.
The congregation was, in general, extremely well dressed, and the smartest and most fashionable ladies of the town were there; during the whole revival, the churches and meeting-houses were every day crowded with well-dressed people.
It is thus the ladies of Cincinnati amuse themselves: to attend the theatre is forbidden; to play cards is unlawful; but they work hard in their families, and must have some relaxation.
For myself, I confess that I think the coarsest comedy ever written would be a less detestable exhibition for the eyes of youth and innocence than such a scene.
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