THE PUNISHMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS - THE DESCENDANTS OF CAIN - THE LEGENDS OF THE JEWS - LOUIS GINZBERGTHE PUNISHMENT OF THE FALLEN ANGELS and the Rephaim, Anakim and Nephilim.
 Grown to manhood, Noah followed in the ways of his grandfather Methuselah, while all other men of the time rose up against this pious king. So far from observing his precepts, they pursued the evil inclination of their hearts, and perpetrated all sorts of abominable deeds.
 Chiefly the fallen angels and their giant posterity caused the depravity of mankind. The blood spilled by the giants cried unto heaven from the ground,<>and the four archangels accused the fallen angels and their sons before God,
whereupon He gave the following orders to them: >
Uriel was sent to Noah to announce to him that the earth would be destroyed by a flood, and to teach him how to save his own life.
Raphael was told to put the fallen angel Azazel into chains, cast him into a pit of sharp and pointed stones in the desert Dudael, and cover him with darkness, and so was he to remain until the great day of judgment, when he would be thrown into the fiery pit of hell, and the earth would be healed of the corruption he had contrived upon it.<>Gabriel was charged to proceed against the bastards and the reprobates,
the sons of the angels begotten with the daughters of men, and plunge them into deadly conflicts with one another.>
Shemhazai's ilk were handed over to Michael,<>who first caused them to witness the death of their children in their bloody combat with each other,
and then he bound them and pinned them under the hills of the earth, where they will remain for seventy generations, until the day of judgment, to be carried thence to the fiery pit of hell. >
 The fall of Azazel and Shemhazai came about in this way.
When the generation of the deluge began to practice idolatry, God was deeply grieved. The two angels Shemhazai and Azazel arose, and said: "O Lord of the world! It has happened, that which we foretold at the creation of the world and of man, saying, 'What is man, that Thou art mindful of him?' " And God said, "And what will become of the world now without man?"
Whereupon the angels: "We will occupy ourselves with it." Then said God: "I am well aware of it,
and I know that if you inhabit the earth, the evil inclination will overpower you, and you will be more iniquitous than ever men."
The angels pleaded, "Grant us but permission to dwell among men, and Thou shalt see how we will sanctify Thy Name."
God yielded to their wish, saying, "Descend and sojourn among men!"
When the angels came to earth, and beheld the daughters of men in all their grace and beauty, they could not restrain their passion.
Shemhazai saw a maiden named Istehar, and he lost his heart to her.
She promised to surrender herself to him, if first he taught her the Ineffable Name, by means of which he raised himself to heaven.<>He assented to her condition.
But once she knew it, she pronounced the Name, and herself ascended to heaven, without fulfilling her promise to the angel.
God said, "Because she kept herself aloof from sin, we will place her among the seven stars, that men may never forget her," and she was put in the constellation of the Pleiades.
Shemhazai and Azazel, however, were not deterred from entering into alliances with the daughters of men, and to the first two sons were born.<>Azazel began to devise the finery and the ornaments by means of which women allure men.
Thereupon God sent Metatron to tell Shemhazai that He had resolved to destroy the world and bring on a deluge. The fallen angel began to weep and grieve over the fate of the world and the fate of his two sons. If the world went under, what would they have to eat, they who needed daily a thousand camels, a thousand horses, and a thousand steers? >
These two sons of Shemhazai, Hiwwa and Hiyya by name, dreamed dreams.<>The one saw a great stone which covered the earth, and the earth was marked all over with lines upon lines of writing.
An angel came, and with a knife obliterated all the lines, leaving but four letters upon the stone. > <>
The other son saw a large pleasure grove planted with all sorts of trees.
But angels approached bearing axes, and they felled the trees, sparing a single one with three of its branches. >
When Hiwwa and Hiyya awoke, they repaired to their father, who interpreted the dreams for them, saying,
"God will bring a deluge, and none will escape with his life, excepting only Noah and his sons." When they heard this, the two began to cry and scream, but their father consoled them: "Soft, soft! Do not grieve. As often as men cut or haul stones, or launch vessels, they shall invoke your names, Hiwwa! Hiyya!" This prophecy soothed them.
But Azazel persisted obdurately in his sin of leading mankind astray by means of sensual allurements.<>For this reason two he-goats were sacrificed in the Temple on the Day of Atonement, the one for God, that He pardon the sins of Israel, the other for Azazel, that he bear the sins of Israel.>
 Unlike Istehar, the pious maiden, Naamah, the lovely sister of Tubal-cain, led the angels astray with her beauty, and from her union with Shamdon sprang the devil Asmodeus.
 She was as shameless as all the other descendants of Cain, and as prone to bestial indulgences.
Cainite women and Cainite men alike were in the habit of walking abroad naked, and they gave themselves up to every conceivable manner of lewd practices. Of such were the women whose beauty and sensual charms tempted the angels from the path of virtue.
The angels, on the other hand, no sooner had they rebelled against God and descended to earth than they lost their transcendental qualities,
and were invested with sublunary bodies, so that a union with the daughters of men became possible. The offspring of these alliances between the angels and the Cainite women were the giants,
 known for their strength and their sinfulness; as their very name, the Emim, indicates, they inspired fear. They have many other names. Sometimes they go by the name Rephaim, because one glance at them made one's heart grow weak; or by the name Gibborim, simply giants, because their size was so enormous that their thigh measured eighteen ells; or by the name Zamzummim, because they were great masters in war; or by the name Anakim, because they touched the sun with their neck; or by the name Ivvim, because, like the snake, they could judge of the qualities of the soil; or finally, by the name Nephilim, because, bringing the world to its fall, they themselves fell.
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