An E-Mail without a name suggests the reasons in red for believing that instrumental music was commanded by God, that Paul and others knew the Hebrew language, and that therefore, the command to use musical instruments in worship under the Monarchy Period continues to be a command for instrumental music because God has not issued another law to make the music stop.

Not proof-read or spell checked.

The only traditions we have about instrumental music is from the ancient documents which explained the children of Lamech (Ea the serpent demon or god) in accordance with the Hebrew meaning of his children's names. Jubal or Genun or Jebon, the Cainites, fell under the influence of Satan. Satan then taught them how to organize mixed-sex choirs, instrumental music, instruments of warfare and many skills of art to control others.

In the stories of Enoch and parallel views, God will come with ten thousand of his saints to execute judgment upon those who have ignored His word and substituted their own. Enoch says that not even a tree is that dumb. The way the Word is silenced in these stories is through mixed-sex choirs and instrumental music. The other "arts" of civilization such as making metal weapons is attributed to Satan also.

One recent liberal scholar is quoted as saying: "There is no other tradition" about the introduction of musical instruments as a device attuned to the part of the brain which shuts down the rational, word-sensitive hemisphere. Jubal "handled" musical instruments but the Hebrew word means "without authority or warrant." "Handle" is related to tambourines and Topheth which was "the king's music grove" and came to stand for hell itself.

Therefore, to play instruments when the Incarnate Word is trying to speak is the most ancient story (myth, if you like) about "taking away the key to knowledge." Jesus made this accusation against the teachers in Jerusalem where music was almost constant.

Our thesis is that God did not command instruments, that they came out of Egypt with the Israelites, that Israel fell back into Egyptian musical idolatry at Mount Sinai, that God then turned them over to worship the stary host, that David's was a "like the nation's" temple for the civil state with musical Levites under king and commanders of the army, that the people were excluded during the burning-musical phase of sacrifices, that Amos equates Israel's bull worship to the idol worship at Mount Sinai, that there are many passages equating instruments to not listening to the Word of God and that when the sacrificial system momentarily ceased (70 years in Babylon) or completely ceased (AD 70) the instruments stopped because sacrifices were authorized in Canaan, in Jerusalem, at the temple and in connection with instrumental music for king or temple at dedicatory or purification rituals during "the burning times."

The Jewish people did now worship by "congregational singing and instrumental accompaniment."

The people assembled (synagogued) throughout their history to be taught by priests or Levites who, like evangelists, failed to fulfill their teaching duty.

When the sacrificial system ended, the Jews stopped the instruments until AD 1815 in a liberal synagogue where the elders sowed discord, went to law and divided the synagogue until today.

The modern songs which go with the instruments say to God: we will not listen to you.

The E-mail will be red, our comments in black and other quotations in blue.

The E-Mail begins:

I: Paul speaks both Hebrew and Greek.

Acts 21:40 & Acts 22:2 Paul speaks to the mob in Jerusalem in the Hebrew language. The mob, or general Jewish population also knows and understands Hebrew. So the Hebrew language is still widely known by the Jewish population.

That is a fact: Paul was a Jew and many people spoke Koine Greek. Perhaps all spoke the brand of Hebrew mix with Aramaic. When they spoke many of the musical terms they were, like us, speaking Greek, Egyptian, Canaanite and other Eastern Words. Some, indeed, have their origin in Persia and India and, who knows?

II: The Jews were intrusted with the Hebrew scriptures.

Rom 3:2 The Jews were given in trust the oracles of God. God has preserved His word through the Jews. If the Jews had not preserved the Holy Scriptures to this day, we would have no knowledge of the Hebrew language.

That is a fact. But, we are about as sure as we can be that when Matthew quotes Jesus he is using Septuagint (LXX) or Greek material. If Jesus did spend some time with the Essenes, which is just as logical as spending time with Pharisees and Sadducees and other major and minor sects, He knew that they had commentaries or versions of Psalm 41 which prophesied that Messiah would be subjected to the authorized use of music in the Law of Moses: to panic or triumph over or mock the enemy (Jesus or Beliar in the Jews's mind) with loud rejoicing and instrumental music.

All of the musical passages in the Septuagint carry its original destructive meaning which has been purged from many modern versions. The NIV uses the word "music" in Paul's commands but there is no "musical" concept in God's spiritual dealings with mankind.

understand Paul by seeing how others understood paul

I have posted an article on Huldah.

When eighteen year old king Josiah wanted to repair the temple, the Law was found along with money and other things:

And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord. And Hilkiah gave the book to Shaphan, and he read it. 2Ki 22:8

And it came to pass, when the king had heard the words of the book of the law, that he rent his clothes. 2Ki 22:11

They sent to Huldah, called the prophetess because she spoke the only truth by preserving the only honest copies of the text.

A prophetess might be many things. In this case, Huldah was the librarian. As New Testament prophesying involves teaching, Huldah knew the law. The place where she worked was the college and not a place to get a direct word from God. The college was:

Mishneh (h4932) mish-neh'; from 8138; prop. a repetition, i. e. a duplicate copy of a document...

Not often do the New Testament speakers and writers make a direct quotation from the ancient Hebrew. In order to teach the Spiritual truth a "quotation" may consist of parts of four or five Old Testament passages. All of it is the truth but the NT writers being inspired by the same Spirit of Christ as the prophets (1 Peter 1:11) were teaching new truth, as the fad goes these days, in a new "wineskin" or more properly waterskin.

The entire Egyptian, Wandering and Monarchy period was of Israel refusing to be spiritual and being cursed with "the worship of the host of heaven" under Chiun (Amos) or Molech or some other idol. These idols were always worshiped with music. Molech was worshiped in "the king's music grove" which came to stand for hell itself. They sacrificed little children by fire to get a message "superior" to God's Word. They did it with tambourines (tabrets, topheth, hell).

III: Paul quotes an Old Testament Scripture in his letter to the Romans. Remember, Paul knows Hebrew.

Rom 15:9 sing; [5567] psallo

Quoted from either:

2 Sam 22:50 sing; {2167} zamar or;

Psa 18:49 sing; {7891} shiyr, shumr

In order to be a direct quote from Hebrew to Greek, psallo must mean the same thing as either zamar or shiyr. The meaning of the scripture must remain the same! Scripture does not change from one language to another. The meaning stays the same! Paul is acting as interpreter.

Therefore will I give thanks unto thee, O Lord, among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy name. Psalm 18:49

The rule, as far as I can determine, is that when melody or an instrument is intended it is included. Here are two good passages under the word "melody" meaning external melody:

First connection between singing and external melody:

And it shall come to pass in that day, that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king: after the end of seventy years shall Tyre sing as an harlot. Isa 23:15

Take an harp, go about the city, thou harlot that hast been forgotten; make sweet melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered. Is.23:16

The Song is: Shiyr (h7892) sheer; or fem. shee-raw'; from 7891; a song; abstr. singing: - musical (-ick), * sing (-er, -ing), song

The external melody is:

Nagan (h5059) naw-gan'; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i. e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music: - player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, ministrel, play (-er, -ing..

Nagan is used interchangeably of the women going to the Temple with Chalal:

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge"); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute): - begin (* men began), defile, * break, defile, * eat (as common things), * first, * gather the grape thereof, * take inheritance, pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

Second connection between singing and external melody:

Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Am.5:23

The Israelites, in the North, were polluting God just as their ancestors did at Mount Sinai. At Sinai, Smith calls "rising up to play" musical idolatry.

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of music in religious services, though idolatrous, is more distinctly marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).

At Mt. Gerezim condemned by Amos: the Israelites were afflicted with "like the nation's worship" because that is what God turned them over to:

"we recognize the same elements: the sacrifices and libation, the cultic feast in which the congregation gets a share of food and drink after it has been blessed by the king, and the merry-making, now in the form of instrumental and vocal music. But the central act of the ritual, which was performed by the king, is called literally 'drinking' the god (Gurney, O. R. Some Aspects of Hittite Religion, p. 33-34, Oxford University Press, 1977)

The Catholic Church: Catholic Encyclopedia under "Candles."

If the Catholics had any Greek or Hebrew authority (the "fathers" deny it) for instrumental music they would have used it. Rather, they confess the Biblical truth but conclude that:

We must not forget that most of these adjuncts to worship, like music, lights, perfumes, ablutions, floral decorations, canopies, fans, screens, bells, vestments, etc.

were not identified with any idolatrous cult in particular; they were common to almost all cults.

They are, in fact, part of the natural language of mystical expression, and such things belong quite as much to secular ceremonial as they do to religion.

Word study:

zamar {2167}; striking with the fingers; to play on the strings of a musical instrument; to make music accompanied with the voice.

So in 2 Sam 22:50 the simultaneous playing of a musicam intrument and the singing of the voice is authorized in the worship of God.

shiyr {7891}; the idea of strolling minstrelsy; a minstrel is a person who sings and plays an instrument together.

2 Samuel 22:50 is actually translated as "sing" or the instrument would be named. None of the translators saw the word "instrument" in this passage.

The musical concept is not here: David spoke or recited a poetic history of God's dealing with the world and with him. You know that poems tend to be poetic. However, it cannot be "praise" unless we are telling "the nations" about what God has done rather than how I feel.

David said "speak" or preach and Paul said speak or preach: the singing and melody was, according to Paul, to be in the heart or mind.

AND David spake unto the Lord the words of this song, in the day that the Lord had delivered him out of the hand of all his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul: 2 Samuel 22: 1

Dabar (h1696) daw-bar'; a prim. root; perh. prop. to arrange; but used fig. (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue: - answer, appoint, bid, command, commune, declare, destroy, give, name, promise, pronounce, rehearse, say, speak, be spokesman, subdue, talk, teach, tell, think, use [entreaties], utter, * well, * work.

Remember that David introduced instrumental music "under the king and commanders of the army." Therefore, music is used and certainly trumpets were authorized by God to either panic the enemy, signal troops with "sure sounds" and to triumph over the enemy in victory. Remember that David was king or prime military commander and not a priest.

Triumph over tends to boast. Here, David ascribes God's help to David's righteousness:

The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness: according to the cleanness of my hands hath he recompensed me. 2 Samuel 22: 21

For I have kept the ways of the Lord, and have not wickedly departed from my God. 2 Samuel 22: 22

For all his judgments were before me: and as for his statutes, I did not depart from them. 2 Samuel 22: 23

I was also upright before him, and have kept myself from mine iniquity. 2 Samuel 22: 24

As David is pictured in the movies, he recited his poem and strummed after he finished speaking. Selah is held to be a command for such an interlude.

Only After military victory (his friends were his enemies) can he relax:

And that bringeth me forth from mine enemies: thou also hast lifted me up on high above them that rose up against me: thou hast delivered me from the violent man. 2 Samuel 22:49

Therefore I will give thanks unto thee, O Lord, among the heathen,

and I will sing praises unto thy name. 2 Sam 22:50

Zawmar'; a prim. root [perh. ident. with 2167 through the idea of striking with the fingers]; prop. to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument, i. e. play upon it; to make music, accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music: - give praise, sing forth praises, psalms.

Zamar (h2168) zaw-mar'; a prim. root [comp. 2167, 5568, 6785]; to trim (a vine): - prune.

Camar (h5568) saw-mar'; a prim. root; to be erect, i. e. bristle as hair: - stand up, tremble.

Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up: Job 4:15

My flesh trembleth for fear of thee; and I am afraid of thy judgments. Ps.119:120

Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; Lev 25:3

Remember also, that the king was in response to Israel's demand for human king like the nations so that they could worship like the nations. While David is not involved

Also remember that while Hezekiah repaid God's favor by wanting "to play his harp in the temple all of the time" little Manasseh was growing up to burn babies to the beat of musical instruments in the "king's music grove" now a symbol of hell.

Most of the Psalms, as stated in this passage from Samuel, include only singing. When an instrument was intended then the Spirit added it. You may click here to see a table which shows that, consistent with the temple purification rituals many include military terms intending to destroy the enemy. The instrumental psalms involved calling down God's judgment, professionals, new moons, vengeance, arousal or "awakening the harp", fear of being cast off, historical warnings or prophetic: none for "worship." Music is not a "worship" word in the Bible.

Shiyr is not used in connection with Samuel or the Psalm 18 and therefore is not used in connection with Paul's command to use the revealed Words of Christ or Spirit. Shiyr is:

Shiyr (h7891) sheer; or (the orig. form) 7788 (1 Sam. 18:6), shoor; a prim. root [rather ident. with 7788 through the idea of strolling minstrelsy]; to sing: - behold [by mistake for 7788], sing (-er, - ing man, -ing woman).

But now bring me a minstrel. And it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him. 2 Kings 3:15

The minstrel here is:

Nagan (h5059) naw-gan'; a prim. root; prop. to thrum, i. e. beat a tune with the fingers; espec. to play on a stringed instrument; hence (gen.) to make music: - player on instruments, sing to the stringed instruments, melody, minstrel, play (-er, -ing..

But now bring me a harpist." While the harpist was playing, the hand of the LORD came upon Elisha 2 Kings 3:15NIV


When Jehoram the son of Ahab began to reign Moab ceased paying tribute. Jehoram called for Elisha but Elisha effectively repudiated the king. Nevertheless, he brought a minstrel. The minstrel did not sing and play but only played. Therefore, just like today, a musician can sing, play or sing and play. However, like the musicians from the Philistine high places, God was pronouncing Judgment upon Jehoram with musical prophesying.

Remember that Jehoram wanted to force Moab to give him more cattle. However, God's supernatural sign was that the musical-induced prophecy would "dry up the waters" just as it did in Amos.

As God sent a musical prophecy to judge Israel, Elisha delivered the word of God: go kill and destroy that which you lusted after:

And they beat down the cities, and on every good piece of land cast every man his stone, and filled it; and they stopped all the wells of water, and felled all the good trees: only in Kir-haraseth left they the stones thereof; howbeit the slingers went about it, and smote it. 2 Kings 3: 25

And when the king of Moab saw that the battle was too sore for him, he took with him seven hundred men that drew swords, to break through even unto the king of Edom: but they could not. 2 Kings 3: 26

Then he took his eldest son that should have reigned in his stead,

and offered him for a burnt offering upon the wall. And there was great indignation against Israel: and they departed from him, and returned to their own land. 2 Kings 3: 27

Click to read the rest of the story.

And again in Ps 18:49 the simultaneous playing of a musical instrument and the inclusion of the human voice is authorized in the holy scriptures.

psallo [5567]; to twitch or twang; to play a musical instrument accompanied with the voice.

Again the inclusion of voice and musical instrumentation.

Indeed, psallo does mean the same thing!

Our quotations from Ferguson are from:

Dr. Everett Ferguson, A Capella Music in the public worship of the church, published by Biblical Research Press, Abilene, Texas.

Ferguson, p. 6, notes that: psallo, septuagint,

"In nearly every case the Septuagint translators have paired psallo with a word for vocal praise.

Note the following instances:

> "I will confess you among the nations, O Lord; and
I will sing (psalo) to your name." Psalms 18:49 (quoted in Rom. 15:19),
'Sing (psalate) to the Lord,O you his saints,
> in recollection of his holiness.' Psalm 30:4,
> "I will confess you, Lord, with my whole heart, because you have heard the words of my mouth; and
I will sing (psalo) to you before the angels.' Psalms 138:1,
> "praise the Lord, because he is good;
sing (psalete) to his name, because he is good.' Psalms 135:3,
> 'I will praise the Lord in my life;
I will sing (psalo) to my God as long as I live." Psalms 146:2

All of these passages involve singing to teach or confess "among the nations." This is teaching or preaching by reciting God's own story and not our sentimental praises.

The psalloing is directed toward God. Since according to Paul, musical instruments speak an unknown tongue, this is mental melody to God.

Ferguson notes that "In the Psalms in the Septuagint, Psalm 33:2; 71:22; 98:5; 144:9; 147:7; 149:3, the word psallo is followed by the preposition en and the name of the instrument.} Two examples make this clear.

Rejoice in the Lord, ye righteous; praise becomes the upright. Praise (confess) the Lord on the harp; play to him on a psaltery of ten strings. Sing to him a new song; play skillfully with a loud noise. Psalms 32:1LXX

None of these were for congregational worship but for quite different purposes. Click for the colored chart to see that these are not associated with the majority of Psalms which speak only of singing. In another passage from the Septuagint:

God is gone up with a shout, the Lord with a sound of a trumpet. Psalm 47:5LXX

In Numbers 10, the silver trumpets were signaling devices and were not musical devices. When the congregation assembled the "alarm" or loud rejoicing ceased (10:7). In the following verses a form of psallo is quite similar to Paul's command for the Christian congregation (See Ferguson, p 5). When the procession is over, the Septuagint describes what the people do:

Sing (psalate) praises to our God, sing praises: sing praises to our King, sing praises. Psalm 47:6LXX

For God is king of all the earth: sing praises with understanding. Psalm 47:7LXX

This is equivalent to Paul's command to make melody in the heart or with the understanding. Furthermore, it is not a command to "listen" to musical instruments and a worship team.

IV: The Greek ado [103] means to only sing. It's used in Rev 15:3 and translated "sing." If Paul meant to only sing in Rom 15:9, then why didn't he use ado? Instead he used psallo. We have already established that he was well-versed in Greek. Answer; because Paul wanted to convey the complete meaning of the Hebrew scripture he was quoting from. It's in the English word "sing" that we have the problem of not conveying the entire meaning of zamar, shiyr or psallo.

Because it was important for him to dismiss pagan or sacrificial "sounding" by putting the melody in the heart and directed to God. This would silence forever any thought of performance music directed to a holy God.

Romans 14 shows how those just out of Orphic, Vegetarian, instrumental music influence, and the Dionysic, meat-eating, wine-drinking, instrumental music influence could meet for the weekly assembly without allowing their instrumental music traditions to sow discord among brethren.

His solution in in Romans 15 and is quite identical to the "speaking" or "preaching" command to the Ephesians and Colossians using the Word of Christ or Spirit as the only resource:

WE then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves. Rom 15:1

Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification. Rom 15: 2

For even Christ pleased not himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me. Rom 15: 3

Christ didn't "please himself" in the human sens and therefore the direct command and example of Jesus was to "speak only what you hear from the Father."

Next, Paul shows why he told Timothy to read and give attention to all of the scriptures which he knew including Paul's direct teaching and letters:

For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, [teaching resources] that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Rom 15: 4

Only God can be the Comforter between man and God as Christ the Word. Christ bestows this comfort through the Scriptures. Therefore, we don't read them to try to find a defense for in indefensible Dionysic or Orphic musical worship: out comfort comes from God as we listen to Him speak through His word:

Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus: Rom 15: 5

That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Rom 15: 6

The Mind of Christ is the Spirit of Christ (1 Cor 2). And we noted that Christ spoke only what the Father revealed to Him. If we are "likeminded" our songs and sermons will be from the Word of Christ:

Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us, to the glory of God. Rom 15: 7

Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God,

to confirm the promises made unto the fathers: Rom 15: 8

And that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy; as it is written, For this cause

I will confess to thee among the Gentiles,
and sing unto thy name. Rom 15: 9

Again, we quote from the Septuagint:

I will confess you among the nations, O Lord; and
I will sing (psalo) to your name." Psalms 18:49 (quoted in Rom. 15:19),

This is what Paul commanded of the Ephesians and Colossians: they spoke to one another including the unbelievers present and the "sang unto His name." When one reads a Greek story the author might close by: "Thus ends my song."

When one "psallos" a "psalmos" the human voice is the first instrument of choice: the harp of God. The first choice demanded is to teach the revealed record, word of Christ or Spirit (John 6:63) so that learning the Old and New Testament scriptures can take place:

For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, [teaching resources] that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope. Rom 15: 4

If we add instruments we cannot obey Christ and we cannot be united. Those adding instruments know that they are doing so and that they will sow discord among brethren:

V: Paul instructs young Timothy in 2 Tim 3:15-17 that Timothy has known the Holy Scriptures from his youth. What Holy Scriptures? The Old Testament! And that "all scripture is by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness," (and why?) "that the man of God may be complete, throughly equipped for every good work."

Singing and playing are not defined as "worship." On the other hand, "giving attendance" to the Word is a worship word.

Paul did not command singing but teaching. To Timothy Pual described the assembled effort when he wrote:

Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. 1 Timothy 4:13

Until I get there, read and explain the Scriptures to the church; preach God's Word. 1 Timothy 4:13LIV

Until I come, devote yourself to the public reading of Scripture, to preaching and to teaching. 1 Timothy 4:13NIV

And after the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. Ac.13:15

Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand. Re.1:3

In Acts 1:20 psalmos is the book of Psalms and in Rom. 15: sing is psallo. One scholar noted that:

"Psallo is best translated by chant,

not sing.

The Greeks sharply distinguish chanting (psalmodia)

from singing (tragoudi).

The first (chanting or speaking as Paul commanded) is a sacred activity;

the second (singing), a secular one. In English, unfortunately, the distinction is not sharp.. Constantine Cavarnos

John Chrysostom, wrote about "teaching" in agreement with Paul rather than "singing" in agreement with the secular world:

"Having exhorted them to be thankful, he shows also the way, that, of which I have lately discoursed to you. And what saith he? "Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly"; or rather not this way alone, but another also. For I indeed said that we ought to reckon up those who have suffered things more terrible, and those who have undergone sufferings more grievous than ours, and to give thanks that such have not fallen to our lot; but what saith he?

"Let the word of Christ dwell in you"; that is, the teaching, the doctrines, the exhortation, wherein He says, that the present life is nothing, nor yet its good things.

If we know this, we shall yield to no hardships whatever. (Matt. vi. 25, &c) "Let it dwell in you," he saith, "richly," not simply dwell, but with great abundance. Hearken ye, as many as are worldly, and have the charge of wife and children;

how to you too he commits especially the reading of the Scriptures and that not to be done lightly, nor in any sort of way, but with much earnestness."

Let's back up a bit:

Stephen was full of the Holy Spirit which meant, in the selection of deacons later, he "held the mystery of the faith in a clear conscience." Stephen aided his own Grecian widows and would have gained a good reputation when he went out to preach. Stephen was called an evangelist.

So Stephen understood the Mount Sinai event: the pivotal event which brought on the doom God had already pronounced upon Egypt before they left Egypt. Why? Because their religion was the worship of Osiris/Isis under Apis/Hathor, the golden calf. They brought their abominations with them from Egypt and would not cast them away.

Stephen tells a story directly parallel to the warning of Amos to Israel and to the Mount Sinai event. This event was musical idolatry.

As a result for punishment, God "turned them over" to the worship of the stary host.

Molech . . . Chiun--"Molech" means "king" answering to Mars [BENGEL]; the Sun [JABLONSKI]; Saturn, the same as "Chiun" [MAURER]. The Septuagint translates "Chiun" into Remphan, as Stephen quotes it (Ac 7:42,43). The same god often had different names.

Molech is the Ammonite name; Chiun, the Arabic and Persian name, written also Chevan. In an Arabic lexicon Chiun means "austere"; so astrologers represented Saturn as a planet baleful in his influence. Hence the Phoenicians offered human sacrifices to him, children especially; so idolatrous Israel also. Rimmon was the Syrian name (2Ki 5:18); pronounced as Remvan, or "Remphan," just as Chiun was also Chevan. Molech had the form of a king; Chevan, or Chiun, of a star [GROTIUS]. Remphan was the Egyptian name for Saturn: hence the Septuagint translator of Amos gave the Egyptian name for the Hebrew, being an Egyptian. [HODIUS II, De Bibliorum Textibus Originalibus. 4.115].

The same as the Nile, of which the Egyptians made the star Saturn the representative [HARENBERG]. BENGEL considers Remphan or Rephan akin to Teraphim and Remphis, the name of a king of Egypt.

The Hebrews became infected with Sabeanism, the oldest form of idolatry, the worship of the Saba or starry hosts, in their stay in the Arabian desert, where Job notices its prevalence (Job 31:26); in opposition, in Am 5:27, Jehovah declares Himself "the God of hosts."

When Stephen told this story to the Jewish clergy thiis and other things sealed his doom: the priests so knowledgeable in Hebrew knew that this was not the Messiah they wanted so they "rose up to play" by piping hoping to pollute Him into the Dionysus singing and dancing comparable to that of Egypt, at Mount Sinai, condemned by Amos and Ezekiel and now by Stephen. So, they killed him.

Look again as the above material and know that the Dionysus worshipers filled Palestine and the Greek world. They were in Rome and had been converted. However, the only way there could be harmony when the found themselves in "church" with their enemies would be to "make the melody in the heart" and not upon a flute or harp:

Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Remphan, figures which ye made to worship them: and I will carry you away beyond Babylon. Acts 7:43

Our fathers had the tabernacle of witness in the wilderness, as he had appointed, speaking unto Moses, that he should make it according to the fashion that he had seen. Acts 7:44

Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David; Acts 7:45

All of these people knew that David made a bargain with God to stop the plague. As a result, he built his own altar in Jerusalem because he was so afraid of God's "flaming cherubim" that he could never return to Gibeon to enquire of God. Therefore, Jerusalem was for 'additional' sacrifices in connection with the king and commanders of the army. The common people could not worship in the temple by "singing with instrumental accompaniment."

When the "house" was built and the Levites made that great, crashing sound (not called music) the house was so dark or smoky that "the priests could not minister." This was a supernatural sign. However, the people prayed from "outside the gates or camp" and God heard from heaven. Therefore, the temple was allowed as a "nation's" capital but the common people worshiped outside. Stephen continues:

Which also our fathers that came after brought in with Jesus (Joshua or Jehovah-Saves) into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drave out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David; Acts 7:45

Who found favour before God, and desired to find a tabernacle for the God of Jacob. Acts 7:46

But Solomon built him an house. Acts 7:47

Howbeit the most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands; as saith the prophet. Acts 7:48

Both Paul and Timothy would have been "made wise" to the gospel which both Peter and Stephen knew had to be built upon the foundation of both the prophets and apostles. For instance, how can you preach just Jesus unless you lay the foundation "from the beginning?"

What scripture is he talking about there? The Old Testament! The New Testament hadn't even been compiled yet. Most had not as yet been written! So we are to use the Old Testament for doctrine except where superceded in the New Testament.

There was no "church organization" even as the Greek ekklesia meant a "meeting" or assembly with no David-like "standing army" to man the kingdom and temple, Timothy had the responsibility of synagogue. Therefore, he gave heed to reading the Word. Because there was no singing in the synagogue in order to teach the text, there would be no ratonale for singing or instruments in the church as "school" and never defined as "Worship Center." Wouldn't it be wonderful if all of the "houses for God" in which He will not fit disbanded and sent the "located evangelists" into all the world.

The issue is not to look for "legalisms" but to simply teach the entire Word of God from Genesis to Revelation: that is the only task the church has as it sends out evangelists to teach beginning at Genesis and telling the "God" story so that the "Jesus" story makes sense to people.

After laying the Old Testament foundation all the evangelists would have to do is say, with Peter, "this is that" and people would understand what "joining the church" means.

Furthermore, Timothy had been taught by the elders as they "prophesied" or taught him and by Paul. One does not need a commercial NIV to go preach the very basic "Christian System." All teaching is oral before it is recorded. However, it is scripture when it is breathed out by the Spirit of Christ.

An example in the Old carries through to the New except where superceded by the New.

Now, that is a "new law" which we cannot accept. However, granting that it is true we know what any Jewish schoolboy knew: that the "Law was added because of transgression."

Paul at his baptism had the same process fulfilled as the other Apostles: he said that he saw Jesus, Jesus the Spirit taught him and promised to be with him in any future teaching. Therefore, Paul was a secondary level of inspired teaching. As Paul and the elders had laid their hands on Timothy he became a tertiary level of inspiration. Therefore, he knew what he needed to know to go be a "school master" and not a preacher or pastor. The primary job is not to go out and try to get people under the water and made dues-paying members of the organization. Paul knew that Christ sent him out to tell the whole story as it fit the history of both Jew and Gentile. Only when the understood that Jesus fulfilled that history did Paul want to baptize people.

Therefore, they would have known that the Sinai transgression which brought on the Law of Moses was the musical, idolatrous worship of the golden calf. For that the Law and clergy was imposed as a "tithed" tribal system to replace the "first begotten" or "only beloved son" as patriarchal leader. Furthermore, Timothy would have learned at an early age that God "turned Israel over to the worship of the hosts" and that the temple worship was "like the nations" and the Jewish women "lamented for Tammuz" in the temple while the men "bowed to the Sun in the east" which was toward Babylon. Here we see the Jews worshiping the sun and planets or "wandering stars" spoken of by Jude quoting Enoch. And Enoch goes back to the beginning where Satan taught the use of mixed-sex choirs and instrumental music. Ishtar or Easter or "sun-rise ceremony" got her gift of powers over elders, musical instruments and perverse sex from Ea, symbol of the serpent and identified with Lamech the father of Jubal, Jabal, Tubal-Cain and Naamah the enchantress according to Josephus.

Every boy schooled in the synagogue or private teacher from about age 5 understood why the clergy was so worried about Stephen: he threatend the house and the law and their jobs. They knew that musical or noise instruments in connection with national "worship" was valid only in Jerusalem, in Canaan and at the Temple. When the temple ceased, the whole law ceased as a governing law and instrumental music ceased absolutely because the Jews moved from temple to synagogue. The music attached to the Davidic nation and when the nation ceased everyone knew that the music ceased.

The Jews remained faithful to the non-instrumental law which they knew until AD 1815 in a liberal, German synagogue where the elders again sowed discord and forced a lawsuit. And they are divided even today.

Summary: Music was never an operative word for the "people's congregation" but only in connection with temple or national-capital animal sacrifices. The people were excluded during these sacrifices. The synagogue was school and therefore never had instruments or a "praise service." When the temple the about 10,000 sectarian Jews were forced to stop the music. The masses of the population never changed from what they had always been doing in the synagogue.

As an example: the 4th commandment requires us to "remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy." But the New Testament shows by example that the first day, or Sunday, we are to gather together to worship God. Another is the command to tithe. Tithe means to give specifically 10% of one's income to the church. The New Testament instructs us to give according to a decision that we make. Animal sacrifices are now replaced by the perfect Lamb of God sacrificed on our behalf for our sins.

There is another reason for the non-tithing: tithing supported the tribe of Levi with about 1% going to the priests. Tithing was only from the free and developed lands, only in Canaan, and consisted only of food products from the farmer's lands: tend-makers did not tithe wages. Therefore, if the clergy ceased or Jews move out of Canaan today they do not have to tithe. Farmers and food distributors now give about 1% and since there is no priesthood they give it to the poor or burn it.

David, the man after God's own heart, used musical instruments in his worship of his Lord in the Old Testament. He said in Ps 18:50 and in other scriptures that he would sing to the Lord. Yet we know by example that he both sang and had musicians playing on some occasions, if not most, but not all.

This was said of David only of his youth or "first ways of David"

And the Lord was with Jehoshaphat, because he walked in the first ways of his father David, and sought not unto Baalim; 2 Chr.17:3

Seeking after Baalim is about the only sin David did not commit.

David as shepherd, adulterer, murder, king, "old bloody hands" who could not even build a house in which God could not live could sing, play, strip off naked with the servant girls as he haltingly moved the Ark of the Covenant with frequent animal sacrifices. I can strip off naked and go dancing with my little dulcimer of deer-bone flute and it might give God a good laugh. But, should I try to "worship God" while naked? You decide.

David was transporting what he believed to be 'God in a box' back to consolidate "religion" with his "like the nation's" civil capital.

In all of the temple or king rituals there is a clear separation between the religious component with God's signaling trumpets and the civil, political component under king and commanders of the Army leading the Levite musicians.

So to say that the mere use of the word sing in the New Testament means to only sing is both rediculous and un-scriptural! Is there a scripture where God gives David permission to use those musicians with their instruments? No! Is there scripture where God says to stop using them, or not to allow their use?

Paul didn't use the mere word sing:

> He said to "speak or preach" the inspired Word of Christ. That is "worship in truth" as Jesus prescribed. The result would be external teaching and admonishing. The operative command or action was not to sing.

> The internal effect would be "singing and melody" and this would be "in the heart" and not directed to the congregation but directed "to God."

These are all the inspired text of the Bible and are therefore "Spirit" or the product of Jesus Christ as Spirit or Word.

Hymns "was that part of the Hallel consisting of Psalms 113-118; where the verb itself is rendered 'to sing praises' or 'praise' Acts 16:25; Heb 2:12. The Psalms are called, in general, 'hymns,' by Philo; Josephus calls them 'songs and hymns.'" Vine on Humneo

God didn't say "stop using them" because He never said "start using them."

If He gave any permission it was when He spoke directly to Gad, the king's seer to tell David how to stop the plague. David didn't use the instrumental or "warrior" Levite panic musicians because had not been organized under the military. Therefore, the command through Gad alluded to later did not, as most parallel passages make clear, even authorize instrumental music for the authorized "plague stopping" ritual much later by Hezekiah.

David's instruments are always connected to the civil ceremonies.

If God ever said "I just love instrumental music and I want you to worship me" like every single pagan religion, then we would be forced to look for a legalistic way for Him to stop it if He wanted it stopped.

However, no one has a personal, human--nature reason for trying to stop it.

> God never began it: it began in Egypt and Mount Sinai where Israel engaged in musical idolatry.

> As a result, God "turned them over to the worship of the stary host" and that worship continued their Egyptian honoring of Saturn, Chiun, or Moledh or the Sun or Moon in which instrumental music was a vital tool to "arouse or awaken the gods" or to "call them into the temple." Elijah chided the instrumental prophets of Asherah and Baal by saying: Perhaps your god is on a business trip or going aside, which means probably, "to take a leak."

> In 2 Cor 3 Paul tells the Jews that they were blinded at Mount Sinai and could not even understand their Old Testament until they turned to the Lord.

Therefore, instrumental music never produced any spiritual changes because it cannot.

Again, most Jews never participated with the civil-temple system or other sectarians which made up perhaps 10,000 professionals. Some participated in the synagogue but most, like today, worship pagan gods if they worshiped at all. However, a school boy would understand that music adhered to the temple and animal sacrifice and when one component expired they all did. Why else did the Jews understand that until AD 1815?

When a parent dies the Social Security check just stops because the check adheres to an alive person. No one has to enact a new law which says, at the funeral: "Thou shalt not get any more checks." The Jews stopped their music without a direct command: why cannot we be that wise. The pagans stopped their music when the became Christians perhaps out of shame.

Some are still looking for David's instruments in order to make a legal temple and restore the sacrificial system.

Again, no! Is there an example in the New Testament that supercedes or nullifies David's example? No! Just bacause there is no example of a musical instrument in the New Testament in no way nullifies an Old Testament example. In the English, "sing" does not carry the complete meaning of the Greek psallo. And let's be clear here; we're reading an English translation of Greek holy scriptures. Then we may use that example of David and his musicians as our doctrine, or instruction in our worship also. We indeed have the authority, by holy scripture, to use musical instruments in our worship of God. To say that the meaning of the Greek psallo had changed by Paul's day is both incorrect and of no relevence! Paul both spoke and was proficient in the Hebrew language. He knew what the Hebrew Holy Scriptures said. He had access to the Hebrew scriptures, as did Timothy. Hebrew was not a lost or forgotten language. And he used the word he wanted to use in his letter to the Romans to convey the complete meaning of the Old Testament scripture that he was quoting.

No, but the word "song" means the same thing as "psalmos." When someone writes a song it is really a poem or message set to meter. It can be read, recited, sung or sung with our without an instrument.

If one is commanded to use an instrument then someone has to command: sing and make melody with a pipe organ.

When Paul told the early Christians to speak the psalms one to another he knew that a psalm could be read, recited or chanted by a group while prose is not usually suitable. The psalms which he commanded are from the Greek noun form:

Psalmos (g5568) psal-mos'; from 5567; a set piece of music, i.e. a sacred ode (accompanied with the voice, harp or other instrument; a "psalm"); collect. the book of the Psalms: - psalm. Comp. 5603 (an ode).

Proponents of musical rituals insist that a "psalmos" necessarily includes a mechanical instrument. However, look at the definition from Strong's even though scholarship denies that it included instruments at the time:

A sacred (inspired) ode
Accompanied by the
or other Instrument

Therefore, the human voice is the "first instrument of choice."

The Britannica notes that:

"Music, like the word, also may have symbolic meaning. The basic elements out of which musical symbolism is built are sounds, tones, melodies, harmonies,

and the various musical instruments,
among which is the human voice.

Sound effects can have a numinous (spiritual) character and may be used to bring about contact with the realm of the holy. A specific tone may call one to an awareness of the holy, make the holy present, and produce an experience of the holy.

This may be done by means of drums, gongs, bells, or other instruments.

The ritual instruments can, through their shape or the materials from which they are made, have symbolic meaning. The Uitoto in Colombia, for example, believe that all

the souls of their ancestors are contained in the ritual drums. (See liturgical music BM members.)

The word "melody" is the Greek"

Psallo (g5567) psal'-lo; prob. (to rub or touch the surface; comp. 5597); to twitch or twang, i.e. to play on a stringed instrument (celebrate the divine worship with music and accompanying odes): - make melody, sing (psalms

An early harp was the warrior's bow: if you have ten thousand warriors twanging their bow string in your direction and "making a joyful noise" it is likely that you can "grind your enemy into a fine power" and make him panic.

Psallo is similar to "grinding into a fine powder." Even now we know that "harmony" (not connected to melody) does that to the body by inducing endorphins or "morphine within."

Psocho (g5597) pso'-kho; prol. from the same base as 5567; to triturate, i.e. (by anal.) to rub out (kernels from husks with the fingers or hand): - rub.

Another similar word means SOP.

Psomion (g5596) pso-mee'-on; dim. from a der. of the base of 5597; a crumb or morsel (as if rubbed off), i.e. a mouthful: - sop.

Now, hark back to zamar and its primary meaning prior to the "musical" use to which the word is put:

Zamar (h2167) zaw-mar'; a prim. root [perh. ident. with 2167 through the idea of striking with the fingers];

prop. to touch the strings or parts of a musical instrument, i. e. play upon it; to make music, accompanied by the voice; hence to celebrate in song and music: - give praise, sing forth praises, psalms.

Zamar (h2168) zaw-mar'; a prim. root [comp. 2167, 5568, 6785]; to trim a vine: - prune.

Now, look at the word which is equivalent to "playing" an instrument.

Chalal (h2490 khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound, to dissolve; fig. to profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge"); denom. (from 2485) to play (the flute): - begin (* men began), defile, * break, defile, * eat (as common things), * first, *

gather the grape thereof,

take inheritance,

pipe, player on instruments, pollute, (cast as) profane (self), prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.

David's word for "praise" means to "make self vile." That is what David told Michal when he went naked with the slave girls (camp followers?) because they (the girls) held him in high honor. He was dancing before God because he believed that God was in the box.

Therefore, the whole of musical terms and instruments are so related to evil and destructive things that people have concluded that all instruments are the devil's instruments. One pastor says that God saw how successful Satan was and adopted musical instruments for His own use.

The word SOP was applied to Judas because Judas carried the "thief's bag" which in the classics was for "carrying the mouth pieces of wind instruments." And it is Judas who was predicted would try to panic Jesus in Psalm 41.

AUGUSTINE: on the Morals of the Manichaeans riducules them for believing that the gods came out of brass and other things by rubbing or abrading (making melody with them). Augustin uses figurative language much like Paul's warning that our melody must never be external but in the heart:

Instrumental performance is the most talent and works-intensive effort known to mankind. It involves talent and years of training and performance. Therefore, it was always know as a word as psallo means to abrade, grind to powdered or make SOP.

Augustine on the Psalms noted that making melody external is a work which David always performed trying to find God whom he believed had become lost:

"Make melody unto the Lord upon the harp: on the harp and with the voice of a Psalm" (ver. 5). Praise Him not with the voice only; take up works, that ye may not only sing, but work also.

He who singeth and worketh,
maketh melody with psaltery and upon the harp.

Therefore, Augustine makes the harp figurative:

Now see what sort of instruments are next spoken of, in figure: "With ductile trumpets also, and the sound of the pipe of horn" (ver. 6). What are ductile trumpets, and pipes of horn?

Ductile trumpets are of brass: they are drawn out by hammering; if by hammering, by being beaten,

ye shall be ductile trumpets, drawn out unto the praise of God, if ye improve when in tribulation: tribulation is hammering, improvement is the being drawn out. Job was a ductile trumpet.

Instrumental performance under the law was a legal, works-oriented. The musicians service was abadoh. The musical Levites performed the slave labor in removing and burning the excess carcass after animals had been slaughtered and the blood already sacrificed to God.

Look at the "roots" of every "musical" term or instrument and you will find something powerfully destructive. This is why the Naga or Nagash meaning of the Serpent is hidden from view.

If you want to evaluate the Christian, spiritual value of a religious practice look at how popular it is. While the majority of "pagan" religions have never fallen for music as worship and the majority of people worship without instruments, the majority of Christians are being sucked in like dust particles into a vacuum cleaner into the "praise craze" and musical worship teams "standing in the holy places" which in church and cathedral is the podium, pulpit and Lord's Table some claiming to be "mediators between man and God."

Then we can look at the warnings that Christians will be few and persecuted and you can grasp why people are trying to get the mountains to hide them from the trials of being a believer.

Paul says for Jesus: "If you want to find Me, you must come outside the came or gates of the city" because you never found God present in any temple or church organization. When the Temple was disabled while the Livitical musicians played, the people "outside the camp" prayed and God heard from heaven.

Church then means exactly what synagogue meant: a place for study, prayer, showing forth in the Supper and looking out for one another. This is never called Worship which Jesus insists is in spirit which is in the mind or heart where we make our melody to Him. Melody is not harmony and neither music nor harmony are Biblical, spiritual terms.


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