Expressing Emotion in Worship
Al Maxey

Does Emotionalism Negate True Worship?

Revised 2.12.2010

A youth minister, and Reflections reader, who lives and labors in the beautiful state of Georgia, recently sent me an article that appeared in the May 4, 2008 issue of "View," which is a publication of the Folsom Point Church of Christ in Folsom, California. David Posey is the minister for this congregation, as well as one of the elders and the editor of "View." The featured article of this particular issue, which the youth minister from Georgia asked me to read and evaluate, is titled The Difference Between Emotions and Emotionalism in Worship. It was written by William Stewart (no other information about this person was provided in the publication, nor is he listed on the web site as one of the leaders of the Folsom Point congregation).

The youth minister wrote, "Brother Maxey, a brother in the church sent me this article about emotions during worship because I had declared one Sunday night in a sermon I preached that I longed for the day when we would become a church that is not afraid to outwardly express our inner emotions to God during worship. I gave three examples from the NT of people who had been changed by Jesus and acted outwardly because of that change. This article attempts to put a limit on our emotions. I was wondering (if you have time) if you would read it and maybe provide some insight on this in an upcoming issue of Reflections. Thank you!"

Al Maxey: At this brother's request, I read the article in question, and I have since done some reflection upon the points presented therein. On the whole, I think William Stewart (the author of the article) did a fine job of presenting his views, and, frankly, I agree with much of what he had to say. For example, Stewart provides the readers of his article with the following quote: 

"Truth without emotion produces dead orthodoxy and a church full of artificial admirers ... On the other hand, emotion without truth produces empty frenzy and cultivates shallow people who refuse the discipline of rigorous thought." 

I found it extremely interesting that Stewart nowhere informed the reader of the identity of the person who wrote this statement that he felt to be so appropriate to his argument, although once the identity of the author is known it may become clearer why Stewart withheld the information. 

Stewart said absolutely nothing which would agree with Maxey's conclusions.  Why would he worry when he is specificially warning against what Maxey proposes. Maxey will intermingle his own PATTERNS such as David's Naked dance

Al Maxey: The man who penned the above words is the well-known Dr. John Stephen Piper, a Baptist theologian, pastor and author, who has served as the Senior Pastor of the Bethlehem Baptist Church in Minneapolis, Minnesota since 1980. 

He characterizes himself as "a Christian Hedonist," a phrase which has generated not a little controversy within the Christian community. The highest aim of man is "the pursuit of joy in God." 

The Westminster Shorter Catechism (composed in the 1640s in Britain) declared the "chief end of man" was "to glorify God and enjoy Him forever." Dr. Piper suggests this might far more correctly be phrased: "to glorify God BY enjoying Him forever." In other words, Pastor John Piper is a strong proponent of giving expression to our emotions in our worshipful praise to God, although he would have these emotions under the guiding influence of eternal Truth.

Catechism:  No jumpy-leapy-singy-clappy here.

Q. 1. What is the chief end of man?
A. Man’s chief end is to glorify God,[1] and to enjoy him forever.[2]

How Enjoy: [2] Psalm 16:5-11. The LORD is the portion of mine inheritance and of my cup: thou maintainest my lot. The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places; yea, I have a goodly heritage. I will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel: my reins also instruct me in the night seasons. I have set the LORD always before me: because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh also shall rest in hope. For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life: in thy presence is fulness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore. Psalm 144:15. Happy is that people, that is in such a case: yea, happy is that people, whose God is the LORD. Isaiah 12:2. Behold, God is my salvation; I will trust, and not be afraid: for the LORD JEHOVAH is my strength and my song; he also is become my salvation. Luke 2:10. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. Philippians 4:4. Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again I say, Rejoice. Revelation 21:3-4. And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God. And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain: for the former things are passed away.

Q. 2. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him?
A. The Word of God, which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments,[3] is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him.[4]

Then, Al Maxey declares that William Stewart agrees with Piper in the context of being a Christian Hedonist!

If Stewart quoted a "truism" without agreeing with Piper because he didn't want to associate with him, Al Maxey has OUTED him real good based on speculation.

Clearly, William Stewart tends to agree with this thinking from Dr. John Piper (which teaching appeared in Piper's 1986 book -- Desiring God: Meditations of a Christian Hedonist). I believe one can now see why Stewart was seemingly reluctant to acknowledge to his readers the source of his quote!! 

Therefore, Stewart is just a coward?

Al Maxey: Stewart likely was hesitant to expose himself to the godless tactics of the legalists, who have a tendency to practice an extreme form of "guilt by association." I myself have experienced such vicious assaults, and they can be quite maddening! I quoted Helen Keller (of all people) in one of my Reflections, for example, and was immediately attacked by a preacher within the Contending for the Faith group for embracing this woman's theology. 

To be perfectly honest, I did not even know what her theology was -- I just happened to like the quote I used from her, and felt it to be pertinent to the topic under consideration, just as William Stewart apparently did with the quote from Dr. Piper (and as the apostle Paul did when, on occasion, he would quote non-Christian poets and writers ... clearly without having embraced every tenet of their theology by so doing). 

But, such are the tactics of these "heretic hunters," thus I can indeed sympathize with Stewart for hesitating to provide the source of the quote (if, in fact, that was the reason he failed to provide it, which to me seems likely). He simply prefaced the quote by saying, "One writer has said ..."

Stewart refutes it all:

"The Bible identifies the heart as the center of man’s intellect (Matthew  13:15, 22), emotions (Acts 23:1), and volition (Hebrews 4:12). If we are to  use our hearts appropriately, we cannot forsake any of these. If our hearts  are to rightly enter into worship of the Almighty God, it must be a conscious decision, combining both our intellect and our emotions. Never should emotions be permitted to overrule intellect. Our emotions in worship must be a response to our intellectual acknowledgement and acceptance of God and His ways. When emotions are given the dominion, our worship is no longer emotional praise to God, but emotionalism, devoid of intellectual subjection to the will of God.

When you perform some religious activity which PRODUCES some emotional impulse by itself this is called sorcery in Revelation 18 where Paul marked the speakers, singers and instrument players. Such activity bypasses or shuts down the rational or spiritual mind so that the intellect cannot process information.

In Romans 15 Paul outlawed doubtful disputations which outlaws private diversities which exist in the marketplace cannot be part of what he defined as "synagogue" in Romans 15:

Rom. 15:1 We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves.
Rom. 15:2 Let every one of us please his neighbour for his good to edification. [Education]

Self-pleasure which was consigned to the marketplace while outlawed for the ekklesia or church gatherings is:

Aresk I. of pers. only, make good, make amends, spondas theois aresasthai make full drink-offerings to the gods, please, satisfy, be Lord and Master.

IV. areskei is used impers. to express the opinion or resolution of a public body, also of prevailing opinions; ta areskonta the dogmas of philosophers please, satisfy, despoz 2. c. gen., to be lord or master of, h.Cer.365, Hdt.3.142 as law-term, to be the legal proprietor,

Heredotus 3. I always disliked it that Polycrates or any other man should lord it over men like himself. Polycrates has fulfilled his destiny, and inviting you to share his power I proclaim equality.

You don't TAKE A VOTE and you don't PERFORM entertainment and you DO NOT let philosophers into your assemblly

Included in this word is:

handan please, delight, gratify, mostly Ion. and poet.,  hdomai, expresses the opinion of a body of people, pleased with myths

Hdomai -enjoy oneself, take one's pleasure,  was glad to have heard, jucundo 

Plato Phaedrus [233e] at private entertainments you ought not to invite your friends, but beggars and those who need a meal; for they will love you and attend you and come to your doors and be most pleased and grateful, and will call down many blessings upon your head. Perhaps, however, you ought not to grant favors to those who beg for them, but to those who are most able to repay you; and not to those who ask merely, but to the most deserving; and not to those

IN LATIN the Keeping in Suspense EXCLUDES actors, singers, poets of musicians.

Rom XV:1 debemus autem nos firmiores inbecillitates infirmorum sustinere et non nobis placere

Rom 8:1There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit

Placeo to please, to be pleasing or agreeable, to be welcome, acceptable, to satisfy (class.).

1. In scenic lang., of players or pieces presented, to please, find favor, give satisfaction: scenico placenti

Scaenicus I. of or belonging to the stage, scenic, dramatic, theatrical
I. Lit.: potae, dramatic poets, ludi, stage-plays, theatrical representations, : fabula, a drama, organa, Suet. Ner. 44 : coronae, id. ib. 53 : habitus, id. ib. 38 : gestus, Cic. de Or. 3, 59, 220 : modulatio Comedy. Orator

Poi-ts II. composer of a poem, author, p. kmidias Pl.Lg.935e; p. kainn dramatn, b. composer of music, 2. author of a speech

Organum Vitr. 10, 1.--Of musical instruments, a pipe,. Gen. 4, 21; id. 2 Par. 34, 12 et saep.--Of hydraulic engines, an organ, water-organ: organa hydraulica,

Gen 4:21 And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ.

H8610 manipulate, figuratively to use unwarrantably:--catch, handle, (lay, take) hold (on, over), stop, X surely, surprise, take.

H8608 taphaph to drum, that is, play (as) on the tambourine:taber, play with timbrels.

H8611 tpheth to'-feth From the base of H8608 ; a smiting, that is, (figuratively) contempt:--tabret. MEANING HELL

Modulatio. In partic., a rhythmical measure, modulation; hence, singing and playing, melody, in poetry and music, Quint. 9, 4, 139: modulatione produci aut corripi (verba), id. 9, 4, 89 : modulatio pedum, id. 1, 6, 2 : scenica, id. 11, 3, 57 : vocis, melody, id. 11, 3, 59 : musica, Aus. Ep. 25, 13 .

Clement of Alexandria: "After having paid reverence to the discourse about God, they leave within [at church] what they have heard. And outside they foolishly amuse themselves with impious playing, and amatory quavering (feminine vibrato), occupied with flute-playing, and dancing, and intoxication, and all kinds of trash.

Al Maxey: Let's examine a little more closely the statement by Dr. Piper which was quoted by William Stewart in his aforementioned article. The first phrase of this quote is -- "Truth without emotion produces dead orthodoxy." I believe there is obvious merit to this observation. I have been preaching for well over 30 years now (and have been "in the pews," so to speak, much longer than that), and I cannot even begin to tell you how many men and women I have witnessed over the years sitting motionless and emotionless in their padded pews week after week, year after year, with expressions of pained resignation on their faces. 

Yes, they may have been in possession of God's Truth, but it hadn't moved them! "Dwight Moody used to say, 'People have just enough religion to make themselves miserable; they cannot be happy at a wild party and they are uncomfortable at a prayer meeting.' How true it is!! Many people have just enough religion to be miserable, but not enough to enjoy it. And so often this is because they have no idea what Christian life is really like" [Dr. Robert H. Schuller, Hours of Power, p. 111]. By employing the word "enjoy," Dr. Schuller has "flirted" with the premise of Dr. Piper -- "the pursuit of joy in God." The Christian life ought to be a joyous one, and this should include our worshipful expressions unto our Father. If your possession of Truth has produced no emotion in your life, you're in possession of a lifeless orthodoxy ... and few things in Christendom are more pitiful than that. Dr. Piper characterizes such people as "artificial admirers." There is a surface admiration of Truth accompanied by a spurious affectation of Truth. It is a sham, since Truth has not truly impacted the hearts and minds of the admirers, thus leaving their lives unaffected ("affected," by the way, means "emotionally moved" according to Webster's New World Dictionary).

"On the other hand," writes Dr. Piper, "emotion without truth produces empty frenzy." I'm reminded of a similar thought from the pen of Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), who wrote, "Your reason and your passion are the rudder and the sails of your seafaring soul. If either your sails or your rudder be broken, you can but toss and drift, or else be held at a standstill in mid-seas." Emotions can indeed manifest themselves in a somewhat "frenzied" state, however without the guiding influence of divine Truth, our emotions are adrift. Piper describes such people as "shallow" ... "who refuse the discipline of rigorous thought." In the words of Gibran, they are ruled by "passion" and not "reason." There is certainly nothing wrong with a disciple of Christ Jesus being passionate (having strong, intense feelings and emotions). Indeed, a disciple must be. But one's passions must be guided, controlled, channeled. This is where reason, thought and Truth come in. Truth without emotion, and emotion without Truth, are equally worthless in producing a fully functional and effective disciple of Christ capable of expressing himself or herself in a satisfactory and personally satisfying worship experience. There must be balance.

William Stewart, within his article in "View," quite correctly declares, "Without doubt, emotions have a place in worship. They are God-given, and when kindled and handled properly, worshippers are edified and God is glorified."

Stewart also mentioned the MUSIC thing which Al missed:

Perhaps you’ve heard about it. Maybe you’ve seen  it. Possibly you have even experienced it. Cunningly orchestrated music is used to stir the emotions of the crowd; an emotionally charged evangelist spurs them on with repetitive chants; hands and bodies sway to and fro; the atmosphere has been established.


Al Maxey: I would agree completely. Worshipful expression devoid of any emotion is hollow and meaningless. It is nothing other than a robotic repetition of ritualistic rites performed at specific times in specific ways, and with such heartless, mindless, emotionless displays our Father is not impressed. Quoting from the prophet Isaiah, Jesus informed the scribes and Pharisees (the legalistic patternists of His day), 

"This people honors Me with their lips, but their heart is far away from Me. In vain do they worship Me" [Matt. 15:8-9a]. 

Christ in Spirit inspired Ezekiel to warn about the same problem with MOUTH religion.  He called them hypocrites because to avoid teaching His words, they composed their own songs and sermons.  In Ezekiel 33 he specificially defines HYPOCRITES as John identified them as SORCERERS in Revelation 18.

Hypokrites (g5273) hoop-ok-ree-tace'; from 5271; an actor under an assumed character (stage-player), tragoidias [goat singers], komoidian, play tragedies, comedy, i.e. (fig.) a dissembler ("hypocrite"): - hypocrite.

Hupokrino reply, make answer, of an oracle, 2. expound, interpret, explain [Peter outlawed this as private interpretation.] 2. deliver a speech, of an oracle, declaim, of orators and rhetoricians, epresent dramatically, ertikn dramatn hupotheseis,

Hupothesis here speaks of an actor's role in the theater using melody and poetry. Pantomime, mimicry, theatrical performance, play, fables.

Erotikon dramatn 3. of an orator, use histrionic arts, exaggerate, ape, mimic, Mania or religious frenzy.

Erotikon Dramaton

A. Erotikon  Erotikos A of or caused by love. Orge (wrath), Lupe, Melos or love song

Demosthenes, Speeches [15] but in fact he has deserted the path of right and justice, he has flinched from the proof of recent guilt, and then, after a long interval, he makes a hotchpotch of imputation and banter and scurrility, and stands on a false pretence, denouncing me, but indicting Ctesiphon. He sets in the forefront of the controversy his private quarrel with me, in which he has never confronted me fairly; yet he is avowedly seeking to disfranchise somebody else.

5. hupokrinetai, he plays his part: cf. etragodei in. The word implies not only pomposity but dissimulation

B. Dramaton  Dramaton II.action represented on the stage, drama, play, poetry 

Saturikos Satyrus , i, m., = saturosI. A kind of ape, II. A Satyr, one of the satyri, a kind of wood-deities resembling apes, with two goat's feet, and very lascivious, 2. lewd, goatish fellow, Dionysus himself.

LATIN: Canto I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play (class. in prose and poetry; to sing and play while the actor accompanies the song with gestures or dancing, C. Transf., of instruments, to sound, resound: 2. Of the singing pronunciation of an orator, to declaim in a singing tone, to sing, preach to deaf ears. occasion for singing, i. e. for imagination, fiction, Of an actor:

Al Maxey:  Worship without emotion is worthless! Remove the heart from the One Body and it becomes lifeless ... and I'm sure we've all seen more than our share of lifeless congregations, completely lacking in heart and spirit. 

The UNIQUE worship concept for the church in the wilderness was:
INCLUSIVE of resting, reading and rehearsing the word: tha't what disciples do.
EXCLUSIVE of vocal or instrumental rejoicing: that is what children and rhetoricians do.

The synagogue never changed and "never had a praise service."  The LADED BURDEN Jesus came to remove was specificially the songs which created spiritual anxiety through religious rituals.
The REST or Greek PAUO insists that we STOP the speaking, singing and playing.
The SELF pleasure Paul outlawed for the synagogue in Romans 15 points to all acts "which creates spiritual anxiety."  The meaning of HERESY points to the priests who "lifted up the lambs to cut their throat" while the musicians called musicians called PARASITES made them dumb before the slaughter.

Al Maxey: They are a pitiful sight, as is any individual disciple who feels he or she must suppress their emotions in order to be pleasing to their God.

Indeed, "worshipping God should bring a variety of emotions in us" [Stewart]. To state it another way: can worship even truly be worship if one's emotions are not engaged and evidenced?! I believe the answer is a resounding NO. 

The masculine gender is universally associated with "sending out the flute girls" so they could hold manly discord. The universal feminine impulse was in "outbursts of emotion." These were manufactured by wine, women and song while the JOY of a disciple is defined as an INNER joy. The masculine impulse is not to sing, clap, dance and play instruments

Stewart rightly declares near the end of his article, "Emotion is necessary." In fact, he goes on to state, within his final sentence, that ideally, when God's people assemble in a corporate setting for times of edification and praise, "our emotions will most certainly be stirred, as will the emotions of all others" who have assembled together with us with right hearts! 

During such times of worshipful expression (whether corporately or individually) we should experience a wide range of emotions. We may well be moved to tears, for example, as we surround the Lord's Table and remember His suffering and sacrifice for us. We will certainly express our joy when one expresses a desire to embrace Jesus and turn from a life of sin. 

We'll lift up our voices, and perhaps even "holy hands," as we offer up songs of praise and prayers of thanksgiving and supplication. Again, whether alone or together with other believers, if our worshipful expressions are utterly devoid of heart and spirit (of emotion), they are worthless. Why? Because they are lifeless.

lifting hands, wrath, orge

lifeless instruments

Al Maxey: As one reads through the inspired Old Covenant and New Covenant writings, one will discover time and again the people of God evidencing their emotions as they come before their God in worship. In Acts 3 we find a man who had been lame from birth, and who, after being healed by Peter and John, 

"entered the temple with them, walking and leaping and praising God. And all the people saw him walking and praising God" [vs. 8-9]. 

This man was not in the Synagogue or even temple grounds:

Acts 3:2 And a certain man lame from his mother’s womb was carried, whom they laid daily at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, to ask alms of them that entered into the temple;

Neither he nor singers or preachers could enter into the holy places of the Temple.  He would have been in the courts with all of the singing, speeches, dances, eating, selling sheep and exchanging money.  It has been observed that there was a synagogue at the temple grounds and Jesus was there TEACHING.

Mark 12:37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son?
        And the common people heard him gladly.
Mark 12:38 And he said unto them in his doctrine,
        Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing,
        and love salutations in the marketplaces,
Mark 12:39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
Mark 12:40 Which devour widows’ houses,
        and for a pretence make long prayers:
        these shall receive greater damnation.
Mark 12:41 And Jesus sat over against the treasury,
        and beheld how the people cast money into the treasury:
        and many that were rich cast in much. 

Therefore, Jesus would utterly condemn those who use COMMAND AUTHORITY to reimpose the temple tax or to force widows to tithe or confiscate her house by getting her to "pledge" it and take it away from her heirs just to build a new temple of doom.

Gazophulakion (g1049) gad-zof-oo-lak'-ee-on; from 1047 and 5438; a treasure-house, i.e. a court in the temple for the collection-boxes: - treasury

Gaza of foreign origin and Guarded. The widow cast in her tiny coins

Mark 12:42 And there came a certain poor widow, 
        and she threw in two mites, which make a farthing.
Mark 12:43 And he called unto him his disciples, and saith unto them,
        Verily I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast more in,
        than all they which have cast into the treasury:
Mark 12:44 For all they did cast in of their abundance;
        but she of her want did cast in all that she had, even all her living
However, since we know that this was Herod's temple probably to Jupiter, Jesus had some words to say of the preachers who TOOK took the money form the poor>

AND as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here Mark 13:1

And Jesus answering said unto him, Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. Mark 13:2

Al Maxey: Is it acceptable in the sight of heaven to leap for joy and praise God at the same time?  Apparently. At least there was no indication within the passage that God was displeased with this emotional display in the temple.

Certainly: you have 168 hours and you can leap and praise during most of them. Jesus would ask: "Could you not tarry with ME for one hour."  Jesus didn't dance. Paul didn't dance. Peter didn't dance. There would be NO dancing inside of the synagogue.

How can one keep from thinking of King David (a man after God's own heart) "leaping and dancing before the Lord" [2 Sam. 6:16], and "dancing before the Lord with all his might ... with shouting and the sound of the trumpet" while offerings and sacrifices were being made to the Lord God Almighty? Was our God displeased with this emotional display?  

I keep thinking of David going out with the girls wearing a robe or stola which is defined in the literature as that of the prostitute. He also had on the ephod or PRIEST'S garment which he had no right to.  David engaged in an obscene spiral dance because he was king of a Star Worship nation

David was the king: a typical oriental monarch.  He was not a worship leader: this has nothing about a "worship service." Furthermore, Israel had been turned over to worship the starry host because of musical idolatry at Mount Sinai.  Later God "gave them kings in His anger" but not before warning through Samuel that He was turning them loose to carry out the captivity and death sentence.  Perhaps reading WHY the nations had kings and lost God's leadership would help.

First Samuel Chapter Eight

2 Sam 6:14 And David danced before the Lord with all his might;
............ and David was girded with a linen ephod.

2 Samuel 6.[14] et David saltabat totis viribus ante Dominum porro David erat accinctus ephod lineo [15] et David et omnis domus Israhelducebant arcam testamenti Domini in iubilo et in clangore bucinae

"The ritual dance was probably widespread in the ancient East. David's performance has Egyptian parallels. Seti I, the father of Rameses II, and three other Pharaohs are said to have danced before a deity, and Asiatic monuments attest the custom elsewhere... The description of David's dance: he 'danced before Jehovah with all his might... leaping and dancing before Jeh' (2 S 6: 14-16) suggests three features that particular display and the mode of dancing which it represented: violent exertion, leaping (Mephassez) and whirling round (mekharker) . Perhaps the whirling dance of Islam is a modern parallel to the last." (Int Std Bible Ency., Games, p. 1170).


However, of Messiah. 

Isa 42:2 He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street.

cla-mo , a-vi, a-tum, 1, v. n. and  I. a. [Sanscr. kar-, to celebrate; Gr. kale, kltos; cf.: clarus, classis, nomenclator, concilium]. 

Hillel, Judgex 12:1

Saltatory (slt-tr, sl-) adj.
1. Of, relating to, or adapted for leaping or dancing.
2. Proceeding by leaps rather than by smooth, gradual transitions.

Salto (once salĭto , Varr. L. L. 5, 85 Mll., Salii a salitando), āvi, ātum, 1,

    I.v. freq. n. and a. [2. salio], to dance (in the widest signif. of the word, including pantomime and gesticulation; mostly with a contemptuous accessory signif.).
      B.Trop., of an orator, to speak in a jerking manner, i. e. in little clauses: 
Jactant Th throw, cast, hurl, to scatter semen. To throw, toss about, make gestures, throw kisses, to be restless, rebellius, sow serpen's seed
Ovid, Meta 14.527
When the holy mother of the gods, recalling
how those same pines were felled on Ida's crest,
filled the wind with a sound of cymbals clashed
and trill of boxwood flutes. Borne through light air
by her famed lion yoke, she came and said,
“In vain you cast the fire with impious hand,
Turnus, for I will save this burning fleet.
I will not let the greedy flame consume
trees that were part and members of my grove.”
Venus (Lucifer, Zoe) the Mother Goddess

Saltō āvī, ātus, āre, freq. [salio] , to dance: in convivio saltare nudus coeperat: nemo enim fere saltat sobrius, nisi, etc.: scire saltare, O.: Fac saltet, O.: ad tibicinis modos, L.--Fig., to speak jerkingly, speak in short clauses: saltat incīdens particulas.--With acc: aliquam mimo saltante puellam, dancing a girl's part, O.: Cyclopa, H.: saltata pomata, recited with rhythmical movements, O.

tībīcĭna , ae, f. [tibicen] ,  I. a female fluteplayer,

2 Sam 6:15 So David and all the house of Israel
............ brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting,
............ and with the sound of the trumpet.

ju-bilo , a-vi, a-tum, 1, v. n. and

I. a. [jubilum], to shout, to raise a shout of joy: quiritare, jubilare, Varr. L. L. 6, 68 Mll.: aliquem, to call out to a person: io buccol quis me jubilat? Poet. ib.: jubilate Deo, Vulg. Psa. 99, 4 : in conspectu regis Domini, id. ib. 99, 6 .

2 Sam 6:20 Then David returned to bless his household.
............ And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David,
............ and said, How glorious was the king of Israel to day,
............ who uncovered himself to day
............ in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants,
............ as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself

2 Samuel 6:[20] reversusque est et David ut benediceret domui suae et egressa Michol filia Saul in occursum David ait quam gloriosus fuit hodie rex Israhel discoperiens se ante ancillas servorum suorum et nudatus est quasi si nudetur unus de scurris

Nu-do I. to make naked or bare; to strip, bare, lay bare, expose to view, uncover (syn.: exuo, detego, revelo).
1. In milit. lang., to leave uncovered, leave exposed or defenceless, to expose a place to the enemy
A.To lay bare, expose
B.To lay bare, make visible, expose, betray, disclose

Scurra , an elegant, town-bred man; a fine gentleman, gallant, dandy. 1. A city buffoon, droll, jester (usually in the suite of wealthy persons, and accordingly a kind of parasite; syn.: -Of the clown in a pantomime, Juv. 13, sannio, parasitus) Same as Auloedus one who sings to the flute.

Sam 6:21 And David said unto Michal,
............ It was before the Lord, which chose me before thy father,
............ and before all his house,
............ to appoint me ruler over the people of the Lord, over Israel:
............ therefore will I play before the Lord.


Sporting or playing is defined as the "original sin" of musical celebration at Mount Sinai after Israel took their "marriage vow" with God and His Covenant.

And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. Exodus 32:6

To play is the Hebrew:

Cachaq (h6711) tsaw-khak'; a prim. root; to laugh outright (in merriment or scorn); by impl. to sport: - laugh, mock, play, make sport.

"The triumphal hymn of Moses had unquestionably a religious character about it; but the employment of

music in religious services, though idolatrous,
is more distinctly
marked in the festivities which attended the erection of the golden calf." (Smith's Bible Dictionary, Music, p. 589).

Of Samson:

But the Philistines took him, and put out his eyes, and brought him down to Gaza, and bound him with fetters of brass; and he did grind in the prison house. Judges 16:21

Now, when Samson "played" he did play a child's game and when he ground in the prison house he didn't make flour. Grind is:

Tachan (h2912) taw-khan'; a prim. root; to grind meal; hence to be a concubine (that being their employment): - grind (-er).

Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers. Is.47:2

This "play" is also the Hebrew:

Sachaq (h7832) saw-khak'; a prim. root; to laugh (in pleasure or detraction); by impl. to play: - deride, have in derision, laugh, make merry, mock (-er), play, rejoice, (laugh to) scorn, be in (make) sport.

As Samson was ready to be sacrificed the pagans wanted him to PLAY in the same way the Jewish clergy would try to get Jesus to sing and dance the perverted Dionysus choral. The word for "play" in Exodus and David's musical dance are interchangeable:

And it came to pass, when their hearts were merry, that they said, Call for Samson, that he may make us sport (7832) . And they called for Samson out of the prison house; and he made them sport (6711) : and they set him between the pillars. Judges 16:25

The word "played" is used of David to show that this word means that they played the instruments:

And David and all the house of Israel played before the Lord on all manner of instruments made of fir wood, even on harps, and on psalteries, and on timbrels, and on cornets, and on cymbals. 2 Sam 6:5

Played is:

Sachaq (h7832) saw-khak'; a prim. root;

to laugh (in pleasure or detraction);

by impl. to play: - deride, have in derision, laugh, make merry, mock (-er), play, rejoice, (laugh to) scorn, be in (make) sport.

Exodus 32 Wilderness Judges Samsos 2 Samuel David
h6711 h6711
h7832 h7832

Playing or laughing before the Lord was what caused Him to TURN THEM over to worship the pagan gods. Therefore, the common people now quarantined from the temple, were to SYNAGOGUE or EKKLESIA for instruction at which time the TRIUMPH was outlawed:

Ruwa (h7321) roo-ah'; a prim. root; to mar (espec. by breaking); fig. to split the ears (with sound), i. e. shout (for alarm or joy): - blow an alarm, cry (alarm, aloud, out), destroy, make a joyful noise, smart, shout (for joy), sound an alarm, triumph.

Al Maxey: No. But, Michal, David's wife, was, and "she despised him in her heart" for it. In fact, she later rebuked him for making a fool of himself [vs. 20]. However, David responded to her, "It was before the Lord ... therefore I will celebrate before the Lord" [vs. 21]. 

Who ended up being punished by God that day? "And Michal the daughter of Saul had no child to the day of her death" [vs. 23]. 

That's true: David boasted that he had made himself VILE (the praise word) with the camp following girls: he was certain that He had God in the Ark of the Covenant.  As a repayment to faithful Michal, David made sure that all of her (or nephews) seed by Saul was destroyed except one cripple who could not question his authority. One was given up as a human sacrifice. David was afraid that any of Saul's descendants would challenge him to the throne of a kingdom God had turned over to worship the starry host.

"Wearing a linen ephod, David once performed an ecstatic dance before the ark of the Lord. From the fact that his wife Michal chided him for having uncovered himself before his servant's handmaidens (2 Sam. 6:20), it seems likely that the king's exhibition was vulgar and revealing. Apparently as a retaliation for her scolding, David fathered no children by Michal (2 Sam. 6:23)" (Garrison, p. 31-32)

So, again we have David passing the punishment on to innocent people:
2Sam. 21:6 Let seven men of his sons be delivered unto us, 
        and we will hang them up unto the LORD in Gibeah of Saul,
        whom the LORD did choose. And the king said, I will give them.
2Sam. 21:7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul,
        because of the LORD’s oath that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul.
2Sam. 21:8 But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul,
        and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul
        whom she brought up [bear?] for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite:
2Sam. 21:9 And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites,
        and they hanged them in the hill before the LORD:
        and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest,
        in the first days, in the beginning of barley harvest.
Armoni and Mephibosheth;

Adam Clark: Was the requisition of the Gibeonites to have Saul's sons sacrificed to God, to be considered as an oracle of God? Certainly not; God will not have man's blood for sacrifice, no more than he will have swine's blood. The famine might have been removed, and the land properly purged, by offering the sacrifices prescribed by the law, and by a general humiliation of the people. 

Al Maxey: There are many lessons here, but we should not overlook one of the more obvious: God does not disapprove of emotional displays by those who come before Him with hearts fully devoted to Him. Indeed, it quite often tends to go rather badly for those who dare to criticize such emotion within worship and praise. 

There was no praise service in the synagogue: Paul shows that shutting down the "creation of mental excitement" and using one mind and one mouth to teach "that which is written" or "Scripture" is the only way to PRAISE God.  If you praise God with your body you are again gender marked and therefore making yourself vile and God abandoned.

Al Maxey: Speaking of emotions in worship, remember Job?! After receiving the bad news that his children and their families were dead, "Job arose and tore his robe and shaved his head, and he fell to the ground and worshipped" [Job 1:20]. What a powerful display of emotion in worship. Such an "outburst" would probably prompt a quick rebuke from the elders in many ultra-conservative congregations today! It didn't prompt one from GOD, however! Quite the contrary.

And Job was in a congregationall worship service?

Mark me, and be astonished, and lay your hand upon your mouth Job 21:5 .
Even when I remember I am afraid, and trembling taketh hold on my flesh. Job 21:6
Wherefore do the wicked live, become old, yea, are mighty in power? Job 21:7

Their seed is established in their sight with them, and their offspring before their eyes. Job 21:8
houses are safe from fear, neither is the rod of God upon them. Job 21:9
bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf. Job 21:10
send forth their little ones like a flock, and their children dance. Job 21:11
take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the organ. Job 21:12
spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave. Job 21:13

Therefore they say unto God, 
       Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. Job 21:14
What is the Almighty, that we should serve him?
       and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him?
Job 21:15

Isaiah shows FOR WHOM Sheol was produced:

Isa 5:14 Therefore hell hath enlarged herself, and opened her mouth without measure: 
and their
glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoiceth, shall descend into it.

H7588 sh'n shaw-one' From H7582 ; uproar (as of rushing); by implication destruction: horrible, noise, pomp, rushing, tumult  

Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, 
and the noise of thy
viols:the worm is spread under thee, and the maggots cover thee. Isaiah 14:11

Thy glory has come down to Hades, and thy great mirth: under thee they shall spread corruption and the worm shall be thy covering. Isaiah 14:11 LXX

[11] detracta est ad inferos superbia tua concidit cadaver tuum subter te sternetur tinea et operimentum tuum erunt vermes


ludībrĭum I. a mockery, derision, wantonness. . A laughing-stock, butt, jest, sport  B. A scoff, jest, sport: to reproach jestingly, scoff, such a drunkard as to be a standing jest, C. Abuse, violence done to a woman: in corporum ludibria deflere,

Phaedrus. The Mountain in Labor

The Mountain labor'd, groaning loud,
On which a num'rous gaping crowd
Of noodles came to see the sight,
When, lo ! a mouse was brought to light!
This tale 's for men of swagg'ring cast,
Whose threats, voluminous and vast,
With all their verse and all their prose,
Can make but little on 't, God knows.

Peter speaks also for The Book of Enoch

2 Peter 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness, they that count it pleasure to riot in the day time.
..........Spots they are and blemishes, sporting themselves
..........with their own deceivings [delusions] while they feast with you;
..........All musicians and rhetoricians are equated to parasites.

Entrupo (g1792) en-troo-fah'-o; from 1722 and 5171; to revel in: - sporting selves.
gamlii lechei [marriage couch-bed] hdonais, playing in the wind, exult over, treat haughtily or contemptuously, made a mock of, tinos sumphorais, III. use or abuse at pleasure

[See Plato-Symposium]
Then, said Eryximachus, as you are all agreed that drinking is to be voluntary, and that there is to be no compulsion,

Romans 14 example: I move, in the next place, that the flute-girl, who has just made her appearance, told to go away and play to herself, or, if she likes, to the women who are within.
Romans 15 example: To-day let us have conversation instead; and, if you will allow me, I will tell you what sort of conversation. This proposal having been accepted, Eryximachus proceeded as follows:-

Al Maxey: Somewhat reminiscent of Dr. Piper's belief that the highest aim of man is "the pursuit of joy in God," the inspired psalmist wrote, "Praise the Lord! Sing to the Lord a new song, and His praise in the congregation of the godly ones. Let Israel be glad in his Maker; let the sons of Zion rejoice in their King. Let them praise His name with dancing; let them sing praises to Him with timbrel and lyre. For the Lord takes pleasure in His people" [Psalm 150:1-4a]. 

And Al Maxey thinks that David was leading Congregational singing with the accompaniment with LOADS of instruments. All of these have pretty ugly background.

We know that the Levites were under the King and Commanders of the Army: they did not make worship but they made war.  Psalm 150 like most of the instrumental songs are the warrior's BOAST songs. Remember Gideon?

"Women and girls from the different ranks of society were proud to enter the service of the gods as singers and musicians. The understanding of this service was universal: these singers constituted the 'harem of the gods'." (Quasten)

"The name of psaltery entered Christian literature in the 3rd century B.C. translation of the Old Testament called the Septuagint where, in the Psalms, nebel was translated psalterion. Thus, Nebuchadnezzar's idolatrous ensemble included the Aramic psantria. Notice, also, that the book of Psalms has also become known as the Psalter (or psalterium), from the hymns sung with this harp. Source

And David's Praise Word is the ROOT word for LUCIFER 

H1984 Halal A primitive root; to be clear (originally of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show; to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causatively to celebrate; also to stultify:(make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (-ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine.

"The name of psaltery entered Christian literature in the 3rd century B.C. translation of the Old Testament called the Septuagint where, in the Psalms, nebel was translated psalterion. Thus, Nebuchadnezzar's idolatrous ensemble included the Aramic psantria. Notice, also, that the book of Psalms has also become known as the Psalter (or psalterium), from the hymns sung with this harp. Source

NEBUCHADNEZZAR the king made an image of gold, whose height was threescore cubits (60), and the breadth thereof six (6) cubits: he set it up in the plain of Dura (circle), in the province of Babylon. Dan 3:1

That at what time ye hear the sound of the (1) cornet, (2) flute, (3) harp, (4) sackbut, (5) psaltery, (6) dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up: Dan 3:5

God had abandoned the nation to WORSHIP the starry host as part of the Civil-Military-Priestly complex Christ in the prophets called robbers and parasites. We go to the Prophets and Apostles to get Christ's side of the story while we are warned that the Scribes and Pharisees were hypocrits meaning speakers, singers and instrument players.

Al Maxey: Sounds to me like our Father enjoys seeing His children enjoy being in His presence. Emotional displays during our worship before Him? Absolutely!! If GOD likes it, then that's good enough for me! Old Bro. So-and-So, who thinks we should all sit on our hands, wipe the smiles from our faces and stare straight forward can just "get over himself." In the early days of the American colonies, the Puritans used to whip people for smiling "in church," and one woman was even shipped back to England for daring to laugh out loud during "worship." I think some of our number would like a return to those "good old days." Somehow, I don't think our Father would approve!

I find it somewhat interesting that this youth minister in Georgia stated, "Brother Maxey, a brother in the church sent me this article about emotions during worship because I had declared one Sunday night in a sermon I preached that I longed for the day when we would become a church that is not afraid to outwardly express our inner emotions to God during worship." I get the impression from this statement that the brother who sent the article to this youth minister felt the article would serve as a rebuke to this preacher about the folly of emotion in worship. If that was his intent, then he picked the wrong article. 

William Stewart does NOT write against the display of emotions in worship. Just the opposite. He points out that they are absolutely necessary. He does caution the reader, however (and rightly so), that any good thing CAN be taken to irresponsible extremes and thus abused. This is certainly true of emotional displays in a corporate assembly designed for edification and praise. Stewart characterizes the negative side of this issue as "emotionalism." Emotions are good, he says; emotionalism is not. Stewart stated, "Webster's defines emotionalism as '...undue indulgence in or display of emotion...' When 'undue indulgence' is given to emotion, the result is more akin to a circus of giddy drunkards than a worship assembly." This, says William Stewart, is nothing other than "profane worship" ... "stirred by human manufacture." In Webster's New World Thesaurus, the primary synonym given for emotionalism is "hysteria," which is rarely perceived in a positive light, as we know that some have a talent for whipping up the emotions of a crowd to the point of hysteria (the Jews are seen doing this time and again against the Christians in the book of Acts).

I think most will admit that Stewart has a valid point here, although it must be acknowledged that there's clearly an element of subjectivity involved. In other words, what one particular group perceives to be a respectful, restrained display of valid emotions, another group may perceive to be a completely inappropriate display of emotionalism. In worshipful expression of emotions, one size does not fit all. There are many factors involved in what may or may not be an "appropriate display of emotions," including ethnicity, culture, faith-heritage, and the like. Displays that might seem tame and "reserved" among disciples in a small, remote village in Africa, could very well generate a case of the "vapors" among the "refined folk" of the more affluent suburbs of a large southern city. In other words, appropriateness with regard to emotion in worship is relative. No one group may make that determination for another group, and no single standard governs all (except for the standard of LOVE).

The apostle Paul makes it very clear that we should all be cognizant of how others might perceive our worshipful expressions, especially when these are displayed in a public setting. If the very people we are seeking to win over to a saving relationship with the Lord perceive us to be "out of our minds," our "witness" to them may well be jeopardized. Such can be the grave danger of irresponsible emotionalism (to use the word employed by Stewart) as opposed to the responsible display of natural, God-given emotions, guided by and under the influence of divine Truth. The apostle Paul dealt with this very issue within a corporate assembly of the saints in chapter 14 of his first epistle to the Corinthians. "If therefore the whole church should assemble together and all speak in tongues, and ungifted men or unbelievers enter, will they not say that you are mad?" [vs. 23]. This is not speaking of emotions, per se, but the principle certainly applies. Perception is a powerful force, and how others perceive us will largely determine how spiritually influential we are allowed to be in their lives. Thus, urges Paul in much of the remainder of this chapter, "let all things be done for edification" [vs. 26]. Paul is most certainly NOT declaring here that tongues, psalms, teachings, revelations, interpretations and the like are inappropriate in the assembly. Far from it. He encourages such ... just as he would the display of emotions. He is simply advising that things be done in an "orderly," rather than a "confused," manner. "But, we cannot control our emotions," some might argue. Oh, yes you can! "For the spirits of prophets are subject to the control of prophets" [vs. 32]. Your emotions CAN be controlled, and thus expressed appropriately, rather than inappropriately.

Some would suggest (indeed, insist) that any display of emotion in worship is inappropriate ... and even sinful. This is NOT the teaching of Scripture, however. Can emotion deteriorate into emotionalism? Of course it can. Thus, we need to exercise care in the expression of our emotions in worship. But, nowhere does Scripture dictate that our emotions be suppressed in worship. Just the opposite, as a matter of fact. However, those who seek to manufacture or manipulate the emotions of others, and to do so for a showy display of "perceived piety," have utterly missed the point of the purpose and place of emotion in worship. Emotions should arise naturally from one's inner being during worship, they should not be fabricated and foisted upon another in an attempt to "create an atmosphere" of worship within an assembly. When hearts are genuinely touched and moved by the Spirit of the Lord, emotions will be exhibited. They do not need to be coerced from a crowd by skilled worship leaders. Much too often our assemblies become little more than carefully orchestrated performances, rather than participatory events where man communes with his Maker. When the latter occurs, we truly find what our Father intended -- "True worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth; for such people the Father seeks to be His worshippers" [John 4:23]. I would urge the reader to refer to Reflections #112, where I examine the meaning of this passage in quite some depth. The terms "spirit" and "truth" do not convey what we have traditionally been taught from our pulpits and papers by well-meaning, but misguided, evangelists and editors.

We should also note from our Savior's statement to the woman from Samaria that some degree of knowledge is very vital to acceptable worship to our God. He informed her, "You worship that which you do not know; we worship that which we know" [John 4:22]. Some feel this may refer to knowledge of proper worship "patterns" and "forms." I seriously doubt that is what our Lord had in mind. More likely is a "knowing" that signifies relationship. "Many will say to Me on that day, 'Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?' And then I will declare to them, 'I never KNEW you'" [Matt. 7:22-23]. All the worshipful emotions in the world will avail little if they are not directed toward One whom we know, and with whom we seek deeper relationship. If you want to read an account of a great display of emotion in worship that was void of knowledge of the One True God, and devoid of any relationship with Him, and the end result of such emotion-filled worship, I would refer you to the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18. These men were certainly emotional, and undoubtedly sincere, in their worship, but it was entirely misdirected ... and it cost them their lives!

We should probably also note, just in passing, that there is just as much danger from the abuse of tradition in our worshipful expression as there is from the abuse of emotion. Both of these have a legitimate purpose and place, but neither ought to be the primary focus or vehicle for worship. Just as valid emotions can devolve into emotionalism, so can valued traditions devolve into an invalidating traditionalism. Jesus rebuked the legalists of His day, saying, "you invalidated the word of God for the sake of your tradition" [Matt. 15:6]. "In vain do they worship Me, teaching as doctrines the precepts of men" [vs. 9]. I fear that there is much within our traditional "worship services" that has precious little to do with God's expectations, and far more to do with our own. Thus, those ultra-conservatives who are upset over "emotion in worship" may just be the very ones most distant from the Lord by their "tradition in worship." "Do not judge lest you be judged. For in the way you judge, you will be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you" [Matt. 7:1-2].

To sum up, it is my studied conviction that worship devoid of emotion (whether that worship be corporate or individual) is worthless. Worship, according to B. W. Moore, is "the expression of the adoration of one's heart." I like that definition, and believe it to be biblically-based. Thus, our worship may take many forms, and men should be free from unnecessary restraint in their expression of the adoration of their hearts. Are there potential abuses possible when such freedom is granted? Of course. Any good thing can be abused. However, the dangers of a rigid regulation and restriction of one's freedom to express the adoration of their hearts are far greater, as such can lead to a cold, lifeless formalism and traditionalism in worship, and we know how our Lord feels about that. Therefore, let us come before the presence of our Lord with a responsible display of our God-given emotions, worshipping Him with our hearts and minds and bodies, in spirit and truth. "For such people the Father seeks to be His worshippers" [John 4:23].

When you musicate you REFUSE to listen to the Word of God just as the Isralites refused to listen to God and TURNED back to musical idolatry. Therefore, the Nadab and Abihu example is a PERFECT FIT: so perfect that false preachers love to ridicule it:

See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven: Heb 12:25

Jesus is the ONLY Rabbi or Teacher and ONLY when we "teach that which has been taught." Peter spoke of a recorded MEMORY as a MARKER for anyone who would teach otherwise. Paul in Romans 10 and 1 Cor 10 warns of the PLAY which was musical idolatry of the TRINITY and those with EARS will be able to hear the message and LOOK where Paul points to repudiate the musical paganism at Corinth: 

Whose voice then SHOOK the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet ONCE MORE I shake not the earth only, but also heaven. Heb 12:26

And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the REMOVING of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken [a trumpet-like word] may remain. Heb 12:27

Wherefore we RECEIVING a KINGDOM which cannot be moved, let us have GRACE,
whereby we may SERVE God acceptably with REVERENCE and godly fear: Heb 12:28
For our God is a consuming fire. Heb 12:29

Reverence is:

Aidos (g127) ahee-doce'; perh. from 1 (as a neg. particle) and 1492 (through the idea of downcast eyes); bashfulness, i.e. (towards men), modesty or (towards God) awe: - reverence, shamefacedness.
Aids, oos, contr. ous, (late nom. pl. aidoi Sch.E.Hipp.386), as a moral feeling,
A. reverence, awe, respect for the feeling or opinion of others or for one's own conscience, and so shame, self-respect
2. regard for others, respect, reverence, regard for the helpless, compassion

G2124 eulabeia yoo-lab'-i-ah From G2126 ; properly caution, that is, (religiously) reverence (piety); by implication dread (concretely): fear (-ed

G2126 eulabs yoo-lab-ace' From G2095 and G2983 ; taking well (carefully), that is, circumspect (religiously, pious): devout.