Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament - Satan's Bells for Freedom's Ring?

Sir James George Frazer speak of ringing music and superstition. However, the only early tradition about music is that it was invented by Satan to take people's minds away from God. It is not surprising therefore that in church tradition which admits to taking pagan music from the pagans for its own use promoted the superstition that the jingle of coins or the sound of clanging brass or bronze actually chased the demons away.

1 Corinthians 13 Sounding Brass Tinkling Cymbals

Perhaps not grasping why every musical term in the Bible has its roots in destructive pagan practices, Ron Allen promotee adopting the Devil's instruments:  By defending the word Halal he misses the point that instruments were for making war under the king and commanders of the army: they made themselves vile most often to threaten the enemy.  Because Israel had been abandoned to worship the starry host (Acts 7) it is not surprising that David fell into an effeminate style of "praise" and went naked with the girls.  The word h1984 is the SOURCE word for LUCIFER:

He continues:

"Similarly, the
instruments of the Bible have their names, and these often betray their origin. Perhaps the sh'phar, or ram's horn, is the most well-known instrument associated with ancient Israel. Scholars have traced the Hebrew name for this instrument back to an Akkadian word (the language of ancient Babylon), and in turn to an even more ancient Sumerian word (the non-Semitic precursors to the Semites in Mesopotamia). 

"Animal horns have been played by many peoples in islands, jungles, and other regions the world over. This was an instrument that Israel also learned to play, and it became associated with the holiest convocation of all, the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). Here was a "devil's instrument" that was used in the most holy worship of Yahweh.(Only as a signaling device!) Another instrument that is associated with David is the lyre or harp. But here again, this is not an invention of Israel. The word kinn'r (or forms of it) have been found in texts from the mid-third millennium B.C. at ancient Ebla, as well as among the Canaanites (attested at Ugarit) and the Babylonians (Akkadian again). "David's harp" has a long history of (mis)use in pagan circles before it became so dearly associated with the making of music to the Lord in ancient Israel.

"Similarly, the Hebrew words for cymbals and tambourines, for drums and flutes, for oboes and clarinets, are found in literatures (and in some cases in illustrations) in nations from Egypt to Ethiopia, from Nubia to Greece.

Each of these became "the Lord's instruments" as they were used by the people of God in His holy worship.

My point is that Israel was not an innovator in the fashioning of instruments, nor, necessarily, have been the musicians of the church.

They, and we, do not need to be the inventors of an instrument to make it a "sacred horn." It is the use to which the instrument is placed that marks it out. The same model of saxophone that is played in a jazz band, a sleazy strip joint, or a symphony orchestra may also be used in the worship of God. We may paraphrase a well-known saying that has been attributed to the great theologian and musician Martin Luther.

However, "He (or someone) is reported to have argued, when challenged on certain types of music used in the worship of God, "Why should the devil have all the good tunes?" We may add, "Why should the devil have all the good instruments?" Source 

The "mis-quote" was taken from a message Reverend Rowland Hill, pastor of Surrey Chapel in London, preached in 1844. Reverend Hill did NOT say, "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?" -- what he actually said was, "The devil should not have all the best tunes.

Luther did not defend instrumental music.

"Rock has always been THE DEVIL'S MUSIC . . . I believe rock and roll is dangerous . . . I feel we're only heralding SOMETHING EVEN DARKER THAN OURSELVES."(Rolling Stone, Feb. 12, 1976)

"My true belief about Rock 'n' Roll -- is this: I believe this kind of music is DEMONIC. . . A lot of the beats in music today are taken from voodoo, from the voodoo DRUMS." Little Richard (Charles White, The Life and Times of Little Richard, p. 197)

"I was directed and commanded by another power. The power of DARKNESS. . . The power of the DEVIL. SATAN." Little Richard (Charles White, The Life and Times of Little Richard, pp. 205-206)

"Rock 'n' roll doesn't glorify God. You can't drink out of God's cup and the devil's cup at the same time. I was one of the pioneers of that music, one of the builders. I know what the blocks are made of because I built them." (The Dallas Morning News, Oct. 29, 1978, p. 14A)

Certainly not a conservative Journal speaking of the festival with and for the dead (i.e. demons or gods) in Amos concludes that:

"In pagan traditions, musical instruments are invented by gods or demi-gods, such as titans. In the Bible, credit is assigned to antediluvian patriarchs, for example, the descendants of Cain in Genesis 4:21. There is no other biblical tradition about the invention of musical instruments." (Freedman, David Noel, Bible Review, Summer 1985, p. 51).

The Catholic Encyclopedia under "Candles" denies that she got music from the Bible by confessing that she got it from the pagans:

"We need not shrink from admitting that candles, like incense and lustral water, were commonly employed in pagan worship and in the rites paid to the dead.

But the Church from a very early period took them into her service, just as she adopted many other things indifferent in themselves, which seemed proper to enhance the splendour of religious ceremonial.

We must not forget that most of these adjuncts to worship, like music, lights, perfumes, ablutions, floral decorations, canopies, fans, screens, bells, vestments, etc.

were not identified with any idolatrous cult in particular;
they were common to almost all cults.

They are, in fact, part of the natural language of mystical expression, and such things belong quite as much to secular ceremonial as they do to religion.

Therefore, it is a proven fact that "brass" or musical instruments of ringing strings or vibrating membranes of "lifeless animals" once devoted to the world of Satan were "baptized" and made into weapons against Satan!

The Question of The End-Times: Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,

If Satan has a "system of worship" which engages in music to excite the senses in order to keep the people's minds off the Word of God (Job 21; Isaiah 5; Amos 5, 6, 8 and Ezekiel 33) how can Satan's "pattern of worship" be baptized to make it defeat Satan and honor God? It cannot and when the Word of God has been taken out or chained to the pulpit and denied to the "laity," and music is used to pacify the "audience" then we know fully well that the Changers are, like the musical Judas, agents of Satan consciously or "unconsciously."

The king of Tyre (Isaiah 23) was the effeminate, commercial prostitute who used music to "trick" the seeking customers. Because Lucifer is sexually-confused "she" played the harp but wanted to be remembered as a "male." The "song of the prostitute" went: Is.23:16 "Take up a harp, walk through the city, O prostitute forgotten; play the harp well, sing many a song, so that you will be remembered." The harp produced the same "ringing" sounds which they believed originated from the "gods" living inside.

The king of Babylon as the once and end-time (Rev 18) agent of the female or effeminate Lucifer will, according to God through Is.14:11, end up at Satan's "home" with his instruments: All your pomp has been brought down to the grave, along with the noise of your harps; maggots are spread out beneath you and worms cover you.

And when the "cows of Bashan' forced the male leadership into taking the resources of the workers and inventing daily "religious festivals" with wine, women and music, they told God that they didn't care what His Word said. As a result, when the people became Word-starved they would be forced to adopt the practices of the "seekers." See how Sophia-Zoe repeat this pattern.

Therefore this is what the LORD says: "'Your wife will become a prostitute in the city, and your sons and daughters will fall by the sword. Your land will be measured and divided up, and you yourself will die in a pagan [a] country. And Israel will certainly go into exile, away from their native land.'" Am.7:17

Taking the name of Christ off the "church," adopting the Post-Modern theme of keeping the "head" or core as "just Jesus and the cross" but tossing out the doctrine (teachings) of the Incarnate God of the universe and adopting the methods of Satan certainly seem to send a signal to God. See the worship of the cross to replace the Christ.

Adopting the Methods of Paganism and Satan to ASSIST God

The facts are clear: Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,

Music has always been invented and promoted by Satan as worship (No. David never involved the "congregation" in musical worship!)

A well-known scholar acknowledges that there is no other tradition about instruments but that they were invented by "gods" to serve their own purposes.

The Catholic church, in bed with the secular state adopted pagan religious practices, to attract the pagans just as modern Seeker forms try to attract using pagan forms.

The Catholic Church has always acknowledged that this is a fact. However, its belief and desire is to get back to congregational singing.

Catholic Encyclopedia Instrumental Music Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Catholic Encyclopedia Singing Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Catholic Encyclopedia Congregational Singing
Catholic Encyclopedia Ecclesiastical Music No Instruments for the Pope
Catholic Encyclopedia The Mass - Restoration of Levitical Music
Musical Minister - Catholic Precentor - First Heresy

Protestant denominations with a God-like, guilt-driven urge to "affirm all people who can say 'Jesus'" have restored pagan-originating musical forms to adopt the clergy "precentor" which is acknowledged to be the "first heresy widely pervading the church" because it restored the legalistic, Levitical form which was part of the Monarchy period of a cursed people worshiping like the nations after they fired God.

The Ringing Brass Stolen from Satan and turned against him

If you adopt Satan's "pattern," anoint it with oil and then use it against Satan then remember that Paul said of the Corinthians, "fools love to be fooled." And foolers of fools command the top wage by actually "seeing godliness as a means of financial gain."

Whether it is seen as an attractive force or a repulsive force Satan wins when music replaces the Word of God. Perhaps the most blatant statement of superstition or crass commercialism is that "musical performance leads the worshipers into the presence of God." Because this flies in the face of all Biblical evidence, we must see this superstition as Satan winning a major battle by deceit: getting Word-destroying "worship" performed by convincing the professional clergy that it actually chases Him (Satan) away.

"Lucian tells us that spectres fled at the sound of bronze and iron, and

he contrasts the repulsion which the clank of these metals exerted on spirits
with the attraction which the
clink of silver money wielded over women of a certain class." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, p. 41, Macmillian, 1923)

Others acknowledge that musical instruments were all associated with the Devil but God saw their value and made them available as weapons against the Devil.

NOW the serpent was more subtile (smooth, naked) than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said unto the woman,
Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? Gen 3:1
(But) And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: Gen 3:4
"Serpent" is related to brass and to musical devices of creating serpent-like sounds:
Nachash (h5172) naw-khash'; a prim. root; prop.
        to hiss, i. e. whisper a magic spell; gen. 
        (speak)  to prognosticate: - certainly, (predict knowledge)
        divine, enchanter, use enchantment,
learn by experience, indeed,
diligently observe. (Look, parenthesis added)   
Whisper is also--
Caphaph (h6850) tsaw-faf'; a prim. root; to coo or chirp (as a bird): - chatter, peep, whisper.
Cphiah (h6849) tsef-ee-aw'; fem. from the same as 6848; an outcast thing: - issue.
Cepha (h6848) tseh'-fah; from an unused root mean. to extrude; a viper as thrusting }out the tongue, i. e. hissing) - adder, cockatrice

Nachash (h5175) naw-khawsh'; from 5172; a snake (from its hiss): - serpent.

Nechosheth (h5178) nekh-o'-sheth; for 5154; copper; hence, something made of that metal, i. e. coin, a fetter; fig. base (as compared with gold or silver): - brasen, brass, chain, copper, fetter (of brass), filthiness, steel.

1. Nachuwsh (h5153) naw-khoosh'; appar. pass. part. of 5172 (perh. in the sense of ringing,
I. e. bell-metal; or from the red color of th 
throat of a serpent [5175, as denom.]
when hissing); coppery, i. e 
Figurative: hard - of brass. 

"The symbol of Marduk is the pixax (Akkadian, marru), and his emblematic animal is a composite serpent-dragon (with a name derived from the Sumerian mush-hush, "fire-red dragon"). Finegan, Jack, Myth and Mystery, p. 29, Baker

2. Nachuwshah (h5154) nekh-oo-shaw'; or nchushah nekh-oo-shaw'; fem. of 5153; copper: - brass, steel. Comp. 5175
Is 48 makes 5154 and 5155 parallel
3. Nachylah (h5155) nekh-ee-law'; prob. denom. from 2485; a flute: - [plur.] Nehiloth. (Ps 5:1)

Chalyl (h2485) khaw-leel'; from 2490; a flute (as perforated): - pipe. 

Chalal (h2490) khaw-lal'; a prim. root [comp. 2470]; prop. to bore, i. e. (by impl.) to wound,
to dissolve; (bore is to perforate the pipe for melody)
figurative: to
1) profane (a person, place or thing), to break (one's word), to begin (as if by an "opening wedge");
denom. (from 2485)
2) to play (the flute): - begin (* men began), defile, * break, defile,
3) eat (as common things), * first, * gather the grape thereof, * take inheritance,
4) pipe, player on instruments, Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
5) pollute, (cast as) profane self, Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
6) prostitute, slay (slain), sorrow, stain, wound.  passing bell,

"The serpent-charmers usual instrument is the flute. Those who professed the art of taming serpents were called by the Hebrews menachashim, while the art itself was called lachash , (Jer 8:17; Ecc 10:11)" Smith's Dictionary, Serpent.

Lachash (h3908) lakh'-ash; from 3907; prop. a whisper, i. e. by impl. (in a good sense) a private prayer, (in a bad one) an incantation; concr. an amulet: - charmed, earring, enchantment, orator, prayer.

"There are some serpents which defy all of the attempts of the charmer: in the language of Scripture such individuals may be termed deaf. The point of the rebuke consists in the fact that the pethen was capable of hearing the charmer's song, but refused to do so. Serpents, though comparitively speaking deaf to ordinary sounds, are no doubt capable of hearing the sharp, shrill sound which the charmer produces either by his voice or by an instrument." (Smith's Dict. Asp)

"The necromancer or soothsayer gained their power through magical incantations. The sound of brass, pipe or string imitated the music of the seven heavenly spheres. As a result,

the gods were FORCED to give material and sensual blessings." Enuma Elish III.101; IV. 1-26, 91 and other Near Eastern Manuscripts.

"The main function of music in the early times of biblical history were social merrymaking, marital noisemaking, magic incantation, and worship. Merry-making in particular was the main function of music during the age of patriarchs and judges (e.G. Gen. 31:27; Exod. 32:17-18; Judg. 11:34-35), sometimes even licentiously practiced (e.G., Isa. 23:16). (The Int. Std. Bible Dict., p. 457).

'Certain members of a tribe, marked out either by unusual skills or by some emotional (or sexually) abnormality, ususally became particularly adept at these operations, and gradually assumed specialized functions.

Released from the duty of hunting, and concentrating on the practice of magic, the shaman, sorcerer, or medicine man was the world's first professional." (H. B. Parkes, Men and Gods, p. 29).

The early Catholics understood the mind-manipulating power of the ringing sounds of instruments. Therefore they borrowed instruments and, among some, baptized the bell or the pipe organ to purge it of any Satanic influence. Therefore, they turned Satan's instruments against him as "weapons." However, Paul said that our weapons are not carnal but spiritual.

This is consistent with many Old Testament accounts which associates music with taking away the key to knowledge of God's Word while the people believed that the sounds were spiritual. Superstition that only the "performing team" could keep you safe from god or move you into his presence was a purely mind-control device to also take away the wealth of the people to support a lazy clergy. However, among the Jewish clergy who adopted the worship of Babylon when they rejected the Covenant of God at Sinai and were cursed with the Law:

Frazer notes that: "The most probable answer seem to be that the chiming of the holy bells was thought to drive far off the envious and wicked spirits who lurked about the door of the sanctuary,

ready to pounce on and carry off the richly apparelled minister as he stepped across the threshold in the discharge of his sacred office.

At least this view, which has found favour with some modern scholars, is strongly supported by analogy; for it has been a common opinion, from the days of antiquity downwards,

that demons and ghosts can be put to flight by the sound of metal, whether it be the musical jingle of little bells, the deep-mouthed clangour of great bells, the shrill clash of cymbals, the booming of gongs, or the simple clink and clank of plates of bronze or iron knocked together or struck with hammer or sticks.

Hence, in rites of exorcism it has often been customary for the celebrant either to ring a bell which he holds in his hand, or wear attached to some part of his person a whole nest of bells, which jingle at every movement he makes." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, p. 417-8, Macmillian, 1923)

"But in Christian times the sound deemed above all others abhorrent to the ear of fiends and goblins has been the sweet and solemn music of church bells.

The first Provincial Council of Cologne laid it down as an opinion of the fathers
........... that at the sound of the bells summoning Christians to prayer Sir James George Frazer, passing ........... demons are terrified and depart,
........... and the spirits of the storm, the powers of the air,
........... are laid low. (the Council members knew better, however).

Again, the service book known as the Roman Pontifical recognizes the virtue of a church bell, whereever its sound is heard,

to drive far off the powers of evil, the gibbering and mowing spectres of the dead, and all the spirits of the storm...

during the thirteenth century, "bells are rung in processions that demons may fear and flee. For when they hear the trumpets of the church militant, that is, the bells, they are afraid as any tyrant is afraid when he hears in his land the trumpets of a powerful king, his foe." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 418, 1923)

"The passing-bell was anciently rung for two purposes:

one, to bespeak the prayers of all good Christians for a soul just departing;
the other, to drive away the evil spirits who stood at the bed's foot, and about the house, ready to seize their prey, or at least to molest and terrify the soul in its passage:

but by the ringing of that bell (evil spirits) were kept aloof; and the soul, like a hunted hare, gained the start, or had what is by sportsmen called Law.

Hence, perhaps, exclusive of the additional labour, was occasioned the high price demanded for toiling the greatest bell of the church; for that being louder, the evil spirits must go farther off, to be clear of the sound,

by which the poor soul got so much more the start of them." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 418-9, 1923)

"Lucifer and the powers of the air hovering around it... try in vain to tear down the cross and to silence the importunate clangour of the bells. In the Golden Legend Longfellow wrote:

--- Lucifer Lower! lower! Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Hover downward! Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Seize the loud vociferous bells, and  
Clashing, clanging, to the pavement  
Hurl them from their window tower, Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
---Voices. All they thunders Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Here are harmless! Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Fore these bells have been anointed
And baptized with holy water! They defy our utmost power." 

In this respect the prologue of Longfellow's "Golden Legend" leaves a generally correct impression, despite the inaccurate statement:

For those bells have been anointed  
And baptized with holy water.

In making the unctions, and not, be it noticed, in washing the bell, a form is used introducing the patron saint: "May this bell be + hallowed, O Lord, and + consecrated in the name of the + Father, and of the + Son and of the + Holy Ghost. In honour of St. N. Peace be to thee." Finally, the thurible with incense (thymiama) and myrrh are placed under the bell so that the smoke arising may fill its cavity. Then another prayer is said of similar purport to the last, and the ceremony ends with the reading of the passage in the Gospel concerning Martha and Mary. (Catholic Encyclopedia)

"Baffled demons leave the Cathedral unharmed and... through the gloom the Archangel Michael with drawn sword is seen flaming in gold and crimson on the panes of the lighted windows, while, as they recede into the distance,

they are pursued in their flight by the pealing music of the organ and the voices of the choir chanting." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 419, 1923)

"The conceptions of the reason, the sensations of the body, and the sentiments of the heart...

are apt to melt and fuse into each other under waves of emotion, and few things can set these waves rolling more strongly than the power of music. A study of the emotional basis of folk-lore has hardly yet been attempted; inquirerers have confined their attention almost exclusively to its logical and rational, or, as some might put it, is illogical and irrational elements..."

"Throughtout the Middle Ages and down to modern times the sound of church bells was also in great request for the purpose of

routing witches and wizards, who gathered unseen in the air to play their wicked pranks on man and beast. There were certian days of the year wihch these wretches set apart more particularly for their unhallowed assemblies or Sabbaths, as they were called, and on such days accordingly the church bells were specially rung sometimes the whole night long, because it was under cover of darkness that witches and warlocks were busiest at their infernal tasks."

"Evil spirits could be encountered or witchcraft practices held at any time "there was no time when they might not be encountered abroad on their errands of miscief by belated wayfarers, none on which the might not attempt to force their way into the houses of honest folk who were quiet, but by no means safe, in bead.(Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, p. 422-423, Macmillian, 1923)

"the watchmen, who patrolled the streets for the repression of common crime, were charged with the additional duty

of exorcizing the dreaded powers of the air and of darkness, which went about like roaring lions seeking what they might devour. To accomplish this object the night watchman

wielded spiritual weapons of two different sorts but of equal power;
he rang a bell, and
he chanted a blessing."

(Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 423, 1923)"

Paul warned against these powers of the air which were worshiped by the converts to Christianity:

Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: Ephesians 2:2

Paul also connected the clang of brass with speaking in tongues and said that they were speaking to god (generic) rather than the congregation. Furthermore, they were speaking into the air:

So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? for ye shall speak into the air. 1 Corinthians 14:9

Corinth and all of the Greek world spoke into the air as they played musical instruments. There are many gods or goddesses of the air as we not and which you may read by clicking here.

Contrary to the teachings of the false church that clanging instruments are effective weapons to fight the prince of the air, Paul demanded:

For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh: 2 Corinthians 10:3

(For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds;) 2 Corinthians 10:4 (weapon and instrument are from the same Hebrew as well as the same Greek word)

Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that
exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ; 2 Corinthians 10:5

Frazer defined two spiritual weapons:
He "wielded spiritual weapons of two different sorts but of equal power;
he rang a bell, and
he chanted a blessing

Paul did not make intellectual against false knowledge about God with a weapon or literal sword. Therefore, Paul would not try to fight with musical instruments which he defined in 1 Cor. 14 as uncertain signals.

> The "weapon" or instrument Paul WOULD NOT USE is from the Greek word:

Hoplon (g3696) hop'-lon; includes: an implement or utensil or tool (lit. or figurative, espec. offensive for war): - armour, instrument, weapon

-Sug-krousis , eōs, , A. collision, “anemōnThphr. Vent.53; “hoplōnOnos.26.1; [atomōn, nephōn, Epicur.Ep.1p.8U., 2p.45U., cf. Diog.Oen.33; of ships, D.C.49.1; hiatus or concurrence, “phōnēentōn
2. metaph., collision, conflict, Plu.Num. 17; pros tina Arg.iii Ar.Nu.
II. in Music, rapid alternation of two notes, trill, Ptol.Harm.2.12.
surig-ma [u_, atos, to, A. sound of a pipe, in pl., E.Ba.952, Ar.Ach. 554; whistling, kunortikon s. S.Ichn.167; “anemōn
su_rigg-ion , to, Dim. of surigx,
A. little reed or pipe, Plu.2.456a, Artem.4.72: also su_rigg-idion , Hero Spir.1.16.
2. hole in a wheel, Hsch.
4. = surigx 1.4,

-Surigx , iggos, ,

-Phôn-êeis , Musical, of the lre, a sonng, sounding P.O. 9.2

Pindar, Olympian, 9 [1] The resounding strain of Archilochus, the swelling thrice-repeated song of triumph, sufficed to lead Epharmostus to the hill of Cronus, in victory-procession with his dear companions. [5] But now, from the bow of the Muses who, shooting from afar, send a shower of such arrows of song as these on Zeus of the red lightning-bolt and on the sacred height of Elis, which once the Lydian hero Pelops [10] won as the very fine dowry of Hippodameia. [11] And shoot a winged sweet arrow to Pytho; for your words will not fall to the ground, short of the mark, when you trill the lyre in honor of the wrestling of the man from renowned Opus.

-Eleleu , doubled eleleu eleleu, A. a cry of pain, A.Pr.877 (anap.); also an exclamation used at the ceremony of the ōskhophoria, Plu.Thes. 22:—in form eleleleu, a war-cry, Ar.Av.364,

(B), aor.
A. ēlelixaX.An.5.2.14, Ep. “el-Call.Del.137:— cry eleleu, hence, raise the battle-cry, “ EnualiōX.An.1.8.18: generally, raise a loud cry, E.Ph.1514 (lyr.); of a shield, ring, Call. l.c.:—Med., of the nightingale, trill her lay of sorrow, E.Hel.1111 (lyr.): c. acc., Itun elelizomenē trilling her lament for Itys, Ar.Av. 213 (lyr., but punctuation is dub.).

-Elelizô1 [epic lengthd. form of helissô]I. to whirl round, Od.

2. to rally soldiers, Il.: Pass., hoi d' elelichthêsan id=Il.
3. generally, to make to
tremble or quake,  to tremble, quiver,
II. Mid. and Pass. to move in
coils or spires, of a serpent
III. cause to vibrate, megan d' elelixen Olumpon, of Zeus, ib.1.530, cf. 8.199; phormigga e. make its strings quiver, Pi.O.9.13; , brandish a spear,
phormigx elelizomenaPi.P.1.4.
Homer Iliad 13.[550] But Antilochus leapt upon him and set him to strip the armour from off his shoulders, looking warily around the while; for the Trojans encircled him and thrust from this side and from that upon his broad, shining shield; howbeit they prevailed not to pierce through and graze the tender flesh of Antilochus with the pitiless bronze; for mightily did Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, [555] guard Nestor's son, even in the midst of many darts. For never aloof from the foe was Antilochus, but he ranged among them, nor ever was his spear at rest, but was ceaselessly brandished and shaken; and he ever aimed in heart to cast at some foeman, or rush upon him in close fight.

Pindar, Pythian.1  [1] Golden lyre, rightful joint possession of Apollo and the violet-haired Muses, to which the dance-step listens, the beginning of splendid festivity; and singers obey your notes, whenever, with your quivering strings, you prepare to strike up chorus-leading preludes. [5] You quench even the warlike thunderbolt of everlasting fire. And the eagle sleeps on the scepter of Zeus, relaxing his swift wings on either side, [7] the king of birds; and you pour down a dark mist over his curved head, a sweet seal on his eyelids. Slumbering, he ripples [aioreo] his liquid back, [10] under the spell [katecho] of your pulsing notes. Even powerful Ares, setting aside the rough spear-point, warms his heart in repose; your shafts charm the minds even of the gods, by virtue of the skill of Leto's son and the deep-bosomed Muses. [13] But those whom Zeus does not love are stunned with terror when they hear the cry of the Pierian Muses, on earth or on the irresistible sea;

katecho  to be kept under (by tyrants), Hdt.1.59.
2. c.gen., gain possession of, be master of,
10.possess, of a god, ei theos estin ho sas katechôn phrenas PLit.Lond.52.12 ; toioutos erôs kateiche tên anthrôpon she was so infatuated, Plu.Alc.23; of an actor, k.  theatron held the audience spellbound. of poets

Poets write muthos  Talk of men, rumor, a likely story, either of a story which never comes to an end, or of one told to those who do not come to an end.  
2. fiction (opp. logos, historic truth), Pi.O.1.29 , N.7.23
Logos  1.thinking, reasoning, tou l. eontosxunou, opp. idiaphronêsis, a historical work one section of such a work (like later biblos), opp. muthos, as history to legend, Ti.26e, Phd.61b, Prt. 320c legend

Ti.26e Plato, Timaeus 26e. What story should we adopt, Critias, in preference to this? For this story will be admirably suited to the festival of the Goddess which is now being held, because of its connection with her; and the fact that it is no invented fable but genuine history is all-important. How, indeed, and where shall we discover other stories if we let these slip? Nay, it is impossible. You, therefore, must now deliver your discourse (and may Good Fortune attend you!), while I, in requital for my speech of yesterday,
Ti.26e Plato, Phaedo [61b] before making sure that I had done what I ought, by obeying the dream and composing verses. So first I composed a hymn to the god whose festival it was; and after the god, considering that a poet, if he is really to be a poet, must compose myths and not speeches, since I was not a maker of myths, I took the myths of Aesop, which I had at hand and knew, and turned into verse the first I came upon. So tell Evenus that, Cebes, and bid him farewell, and tell him, if he is wise, to come after me as quickly as he can.

Prt. 320c Opposite of fables: Plato, Protagoras 320c. [320c] do not grudge us your demonstration.

No, Socrates, I will not grudge it you; but shall I, as an old man speaking to his juniors, put my demonstration in the form of a fable, or of a regular exposition?

Many of the company sitting by him instantly bade him treat his subject whichever way he pleased. Well then, he said, I fancy the more agreeable way is for me to tell you a fable.

There was once a time when there were gods, but no mortal creatures.
[320d] And when to these also came their destined time to be created, the gods moulded their forms within the earth, of a mixture made of earth and fire and all substances that are compounded with fire and earth. When they were about to bring these creatures to light, they charged Prometheus and Epimetheus to deal to each the equipment of his proper faculty. EpimetheusPrometheus besought that he might do the dealing himself; “And when I have dealt,” he said, “you shall examine.”

legô picking and chooosing for oneself, pick out, recount,
Pindar, Olympian, 1: Yes, there are many marvels, and yet I suppose the speech of mortals beyond the true account can be deceptive, stories adorned with embroidered lies; [30][30] and Grace, who fashions all gentle things for men, confers esteem and often contrives to make believable the unbelievable. But the days to come are the wisest witnesses. [35] It is seemly for a man to speak well of the gods; for the blame is less that way

Pindar Nemean 7
.I f someone is successful in his deeds, he casts a cause for sweet thoughts into the streams of the Muses. For those great acts of prowess dwell in deep darkness, if they lack songs, and we know of only one way to hold a mirror up to fine deeds: [15] if, by the grace of Mnemosyne with her splendid headdress, one finds a recompense for toils in glorious song. [17] Skillful men know the wind that will come on the day after tomorrow, and they do not suffer loss through the love of gain. The rich man and the poor man alike travel together to the boundary of death. [20] And I expect that the story of Odysseus came to exceed his experiences, through the sweet songs of Homer, [22] since there is a certain solemnity in his lies and winged artfulness, and poetic skill deceives, seducing us with stories, and the heart of the mass of men is blind. For if [25] they had been able to see the truth, then mighty Aias, in anger over the arms, would never have planted in his chest the smooth sword
> Therefore, Paul would not make his battle using a musical instrument.

> The equivalent Hebrew word is:

Keliy (h3627) kel-ee'; from 3615; something prepared, i. e. any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, weapon): - armour, instrument, psaltery, weapon

I will also praise thee with the psaltery, even thy truth, O my God: unto thee will I sing with the harp, O thou Holy One of Israel. Psa 71:22KJV

> Paul has declared that mechanical instruments are lifeless or "without breath." Therefore, in the NKJV we see that the Psalmist

praised with the lute and
Sang with the harp

Also with the lute I will praise you And Your faithfulness, O my God! To You I will sing with the harp, O Holy One of Israel. Psalm 71:22

In "making melody" one sang with the voice and made melody with a harp or other, always defined, instrument. One does not "sing with the harp."

> Therefore, David is using the lute and harp as "instruments which have breath" to praise God. That is, his own heart and voice. In another passage, the Psalmist defines the psaltery ans "myself."

Awake, psaltery and harp: I myself will awake early. Psa 108:2

> If David is not figuratively using the harp and lute to speak of himself, and the psaltery and harp are literal harps then asking his psaltery to awaken would be paganism and David would be judged:

Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it. Hab 2:19

Wood comes from a tree and the most common tree was the:

Berowsh (h1265) ber-osh'; of uncert. der.; a cypress (?) tree; hence a lance or a musical instrument (as made of that wood): - fir (tree).

Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty are spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down. Zec.11:2

Dodona: dodon , in Greek religion, the oldest oracle, in inland Epirus, near modern Janina, sacred to Zeus and Dione. According to Herodotus, an old oak tree there became an oracle when a black dove, from Egyptian Thebes, settled on it. Priestesses interpreted the rustling of the tree's leaves, the cooing of DOVES, and the clanging of brass vessels that were hung from the tree's branches. The site has been extensively excavated in the 20th cent.

See Wikipedia  Dodona (from Doric Greek Δωδώνα, Ionic Greek: Δωδώνη, Dòdònè) in Epirus in northwestern Greece, was a prehistoric oracle devoted to a Mother Goddess identified at other sites with Rhea or Gaia, but here called Dione and later, in historical times also devoted to the Greek god Zeus. See map relation to Delphi etal

In Ezekiel 31, the literal trees were the Assyrians who were the "tallest trees" in the garden of Eden.

Contrary to superstition imposed on the ignorant in order to strip them of their money and keep them ignorant, Paul demanded that clanging brass instruments are just weapons of ignorance.

You will have noticed that many churches "dedicate" their new Pipe organ or piano. Well, the most ancient of pagan myths believed that musical instruments as the actual idols could speak, reveal or teach people directly from God by the "voice" of the gods which lived inside the instruments. Click for lots of proof.

Understanding the pagan origin of music which was gladly adopted by the Catholic church as an early Seeker-Friendly church even though Jesus came to remove the burden of "religious ceremonial":

"But the Church from a very early period took them into her service, just as she adopted many other things indifferent in themselves, which seemed proper to enhance the splendour of religious ceremonial. We must not forget that most of these adjuncts to worship, like music, lights, perfumes, ablutions, floral decorations, canopies, fans, screens, bells, vestments, etc.

were not identified with any idolatrous cult in particular;
they were
common to almost all cults. They are, in fact, part of the natural language of mystical expression, and such things belong quite as much to secular ceremonial as they do to religion. (Catholic Encyclopedia, Candles)

It is not surprising therefore that sound instruments were exorcized of the demons who likely lived within them in order to make them suitable for a money-making religion:

"The bells (spirit or story-exorcising) were solemnly consecrated and popularly supposed to be baptized by the priests; certainly they had received names and were washed, blessed, and sprinkled with holy oil

'to drive away and repel evil spirits.'
Thus blessed, it was endowed with
great powers; allayed all storms; diverted the thunderbolt; drove away evil spirits."

"On the ceremony they all laid hold of the rope; bestowed a name on the bell; and the priest, sprinkling it with holy water, baptized it in the name of the Father, etc.; he then clothed it with a fine garment.

After this the gossips have a grand feast,
and made great presents, Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
which the priests received in behalf of the bell.

Thus blessed, it was endowed with great powers; allayed (on being rung) all storms; diverted the thunderbolt; drove away evil spirits. These consecrated bells were always inscribed." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 425-6, 1923)

A writer of the time denied that "a church bell lost all of its miraculous virtue when it was named--he will not allow us to say baptized--

by the priest's concubine. Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,
Bacon condescended to mention the belief that "great ringing of bells in populous cities hath chased away thunder, and also dissipated pestilent air."

Many of the more enlightened knew that if you could drive away the lightening you would probably drive away the rain. Others took on the priestly duty to assist the clergy in making the bells ring louder. At times the anti-lightening bell was struck by lightening and the rope-pullers killed.

"Some of the Pueblo Indians of Arizona exorice witches by the sound of bells. An american officer has described one of these scenes of exorcism as he witnessed it at a village of the Moquis, perched, like many Pueblo villages, on the crest of a high tableland overlooking the fruitful grounds in the valley below--

"The Moquis indians believing that witches were perched among the boughs of the peach-trees and just getting fat. Therefore, when ready to pick the peaches they used a "strange mode of incantation. The whole village seems to have assembled, and after shouting in a loud and defiant tone a hymn, or litany of musical sound, emphasized by an energetic ringing of a bell, advanced rapidly, in single file, down the trail leading from the crest of the precipice to the peach orchads below.

The performers, some of the most important of whom were women,

pranced around the boundaries of the orchard, pausing for a brief space of time at the corners, all the while singing in a high key and getting the worth of their money out of the bell. At a signal from the leader a rush was made for the trees, from which, in less than an hour, the last of the delicious peaches breading down the branches were pulled and carried by the squaws and children to the village above.

The motive for thus dancing round the orchard, to the loud chanting of hymns and the energetic ringing of a bell, was no doubt to scare away the witches, who were supposed to be perched among the boughs of the peach-trees, fattening on the lucious fruit.." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 429, 1923)

As the Catholic Encyclopedia claims authority to borrow pagan instruments from pagans, and exorcize the instruments to drive away the devil from his home, frazer notes the common pagan belief in the power of clanging sounds:

"In Annam the exorcizer, in the act of banning the demons of sickness from a private house, strums a lute and jingles a chain of copper bells attached to his big toe, while his assistants accompany him on stringed instruments and drums.

However, the chime of the bells is understood by the hearers to proceed from the neck of an animal on which a deity is galloping to the aid of the principal performer."

It has always been the pagan belief that music brought the paying customers "into the presence of the gods."

(In Burma) "sweet and sonorous music" is used to "announce to the guardian spirits that the praises of Buddha have been chanted;

hence at the conclusion of his devotions the worshipper proclaims the discharge of his pious duty by three strokes on a bell."

"Perhaps in Europe also the ringing of church bells, the sound of which has endeared itself to so many pious hearts by its own intrinsic sweetness and its tender associations,

was practiced to banish demons from the house of prayer
before it came to be regarded as a simple means of summoning worshippers to their devotions in the holy place." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, p. 430-432, Macmillian, 1923)

"Among the Bantus, even a divorced wife sounds bells on the death of her ex husband "intended to keep the husband's ghost at a safe distance, or perhaps direct his attention to the dutifulness of his widow in sorrowing for his death... The melancholy music begins as soon as a dying man has breathed his last. The tune is played on four gongs of different tones, which are beaten alternately at regular intervals of about two seconds. Hour after hour, day after day the melody is kept up; and we are told that nothing, not even the Passing Bell of Catholic Europe, is more wierd and affecting to a listnener than the solomn notes of these death-gongs." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 431, 1923)

In North Borneo "As night came on they struck up a strange kind of music on metal tambourines. A mysterous rhythm and tune was apparent in it, and when I asked if this was main-main (i.e. larking) they said no, but that a man was sick,

and that they must play all night to keep away evil spirits...
While the men beat gongs and drums, the women go in procession from house to house,
dancing and singing to the measured clash of brass castinets, which they hold in their hands, and to the jingle of little brass bells, of which bunches are fastened to their wrists." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 432, 1923)

"The Yezidis, who have a robust faith in the devil, perform at the conclusion of one of their pilgrimage festivals a ceremony which may be supposed to keep that ravening wolf from the fold of the faithful. An old man is stripped and dressed in the skin of a goat, while a string of small bells is hung round his neck. Thus arraped, he crawls round the assembled pilgrims emitting sounds which are intended to mimic the bleating of a he-goat.

The ceremony is believed to sanctify the assembly, but we may conjecture that it does so by encircling believers with a spiritual fence which the arch enemy is unable to surmount." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 433, 1923)

"So in Greek legend the Curetes are said to have danced round the infant Zeus, clashing their spears against their shields, to drown the child's squalls, lest they should attract the attention of his unnatural father Cronus, who was in the habit of devouring his offspring as soon as they were born... in former times, when a Greek child was born, the father and his friends were wont to arm themselves with spear or sword and shield and to execute a war dance round the child, clasing their spears or swords against their shields, partly in order to drown the cries of the infant,

lest they should attract the attention of the prowling spirits, but partly also to frighten away the demons by the din; while in order to complete the discomfiture of the invisible foes they brandished their weapons, cutting and thrusting vigorously with them in the empty air." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 435, 1923)

"in Africa, the carrying or wearing of bells is particularly characteristic of priests, prophets, and medicine-men in the performance of their solemn ceremonies, whether for the expulsion of demons, the cure of sickness, or the revelation of the divine will to mortals. For example, among the Akamba of British East Africa magicians carry iron cattle-bells attached to a leathern thong, and they ring them when they are engaged in telling fortunes; the sound of the bell is supposed to attract the attention of the spirits." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 438, 1923)

"among the Fans of the Gaboon a witch-doctor, engaged in the detection of a sorcerer, wears a number of little bells fastened to his ankles and wrists, and he professes to be guided by the sound of the bells in singling out the alleged culprit from the crowd of anzious and excited onlookers." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 438, 1923)

"Among the Banyoro of Central Africa the god of Lake Albert communicated with mortals by the intervention of a prophetess, who wore a fronge of cowry-shells and small iron bells on her leather garment, and as she walked the fringe undulated like the waves of the lake. In the same tribe the god of plenty, by name Wamala, who gave increse of men and cattle and crops, was represented by a prophet, who uttered oracles in the name of the deity. When the prophetic fit was on him, this man wore bells on his ankles and two white calf-skins round his waist, with a row of little iron bells dangling from the lower edge of the skins." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 438, 1923)

"It has been widespread to use bells in magical or religious rites, and how general has been the belief that their tinkle has power to banish demons. sometimes the sound of bells is supposed,

not so much to repel evil spirits, as to attract the attention of good or guardian spirits,
but on the whole the
attractive force of these musical instruments in primitive ritual is far less conspicious than the repulsive. The use of bells for the purpose of attraction rather than of repulsion may correspond to that more advanced stage of religious consciousness

when the fear of evil is outweighed by trust in the good, when the desire of pious hearts is not so much to flee from the Devil as to draw near to God.

This helps explain "the Jewish custom from which we started, whether it be that the priest in his violet robe, as he crossed the threshold of the sanctuary, was believed to repel the assaults of demons or to attract the attention of the deity by the chime and jingle of the golden bells." (Sir James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, Macmillian, p. 439, 1923)

A German writer of the sixteenthy century under the assumed name of Naogeorgus ridiculed the superstition of the Catholics:

If that the thunder chance to rore, and stormie tempest shake,
A wonder is it it for to see the wretches how they quake,
How that no fayth at all they have, nor trust in any thing,
The clark doth all the belles forthwith at once in steeple ring;
With wondrous sound and deeper farre, than he was woont before
Till in the loftie heavens darke, the thunder bray no more.
For in these christened belles they think, doth lie such power and might,
As able is the tempest great, and storme to vanquish quight.
I sawe my self at Numburg once, a town in Toring coast,
A bell that with this title bold, hir self did prowdly boast,
'By name I Mary called am, with sound I put to flight
The thunder crackes, and hurtful stormes, and every wicket spright.'
Such things whenas these belles can do, no wonder certainlie
It is, if that the Papistes to their tolling always flie,
When hail, or any raging storme, or tempest comes in sight,
O thunder boltes, or lightening fiers that every place doth smight."

See the Ringing of Bells, Music and Ancient Cross Burning

See many other Classical references to clanging brass and tinkling cymbals.

Kenneth Sublett Comments Welcome

Musical Worship Index Sir James George Frazer, passing bell,

Home Page Sir Ja

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