Instrumental Music Outlawed by Moses Two

Most Israelites, except those who went to the Canaanite high places to worship Baal, obeyed this command. God knew, what modern science knows: that if you create great spiritual and mental anxiety from either vocal or instrumental music, it both physically and mentally creates the "fight or flight" urge in our minds.  Every time anyone in church history has introduced musical worship into the quiet services of the church, it creates a great fight and then many of the group take flight.

This happens because sound creates drugs in our mind and both "fight" and "flight" are concerned with self-preservation or sex. If you wonder about all of those rustling song books as the sermon reaches its peak of induced excitement, it is caused by a small emotional breakdown which makes people want to flee for their lives without speaking to anyone and without knowing why.

The loud instruments were not intended for music. Rather, they were to be used in communicating signals to the entire "congregation" to assembly much like churches use a bell. Churches are not so ignorant that they ring the bell during prayer. 

Furthermore, as Paul demands in Romans fifteen, in Ephesians and Colossians, the message sent to our visitors must be "with one voice." If the Priests had a trumpet quartet with four different voices blowing four different messages to four different tunes at four different times you can understand why Paul compared the music in Corinth to pagan witchcraft with their gongs and clangs, or to military music:

"the trumpets were assigned a number of complicated signals, which implied their ability of blowing legato, staccato, and trills, and tonguing, all in unison, not 'simultaneously,' but 'as with one mouth.' Moreover, these apocalyptical trumpets bear different names: trumpets of assembly, of battle, of the slain, of ambush, etc. In generally, they were used to terrorize the enemy into panic (Judges 7:19-20). This function was, for all practical purposes, identical with that of the trumpets of Revelation. In the temple the signals of the trumpet introduced every ceremony and every sacrifice." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 472-3, Abingdon).

The falling of the walls of Jericho was done by God but it was accompanied by the sound of loud trumpets as an act of faith by the Israelites.  In pagan tradition, for instance with Orpheus at Thebes, the stones were said to have floated into place as he played his musical instruments.  Everyone knew that the slaves moved the stones because the musicians drove them on to exhaustion and death.  However, all of God’s miracles were to discredit the false “gods” such as those in Egypt.  When Israel blew the trumpets the walls really danced out of place.

We are not to try to turn sticks into snakes or blow the walls down with trumpets as acts of worship.

"All the various usages of the shophar (Ram's horn trumpet) can be viewed under one category: that of a signaling instrument. It sounded all signals in war and peace; it announced the new moon, the beginning of the sabbath, the death of a notable; it warned of approaching danger; it heraled excommunication; it was instrumental in exorcisms and magic healing." (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 473, Abingdon).

After the enemy was defeated through David's army rather than by God as their king, the nation grew fat and lazy. Then they wanted to lie on ivory couches, drink wine and have the women play instrumental music so that they were ignorant of the Word of God. Edersheim confirms that instrumental music was not part of the worship service but was used to signal those far away from the altar to bow and perform their own worship.  Therefore, when it was used in the temple, Josephus predicted that the nation would be destroyed.

David Changed the Law of Moses

David changed the laws and expanded the signals used in warfare to be used in his new temple-state. Remember that when the leaders of Israel demanded a king like the nations it was so that they could worship like the nations. God answered their prayer but said that they would not get by with it without punishment:

You say, "We want to be like the nations, like the peoples of the world, who serve wood and stone." But what you have in mind will never happen. Eze.20:32

Some of these idols were really musical instruments and the demons lived so that the magical sound of  brass (related to the serpent in the garden) or of string was believed to be music from heaven.   For instance, in ancient records:

"Yobal (Jubal) made reed instruments, and harps, and flutes, and whistles, and the devils went and dwelt inside them...)

There is no Biblical or other historical record that anyone invented musical instruments except those under the influence of the demons.  In all of the traditions, Satan influenced people to use music to replace the worship of God.  David did not invent the actual musical device but the way they were used to improvize while singing poetry intended to be read.  Not even David, however, used such music for the congregational worship of the people.

In a literal sense, the Psalmist wrote:

Awake, harp and lyre! I will awaken the dawn.  Ps 108:2

However, this is prophetic of Christ Who would “sing to the Gentiles” when the evangelists went out preaching the Words of Christ.  Paul fulfilled this prophecy but we have no record of him singing, dancing or playing musical instruments.

Habakkuk understood what the Jews were doing even if we don't.  He understood that the people believed that the sound coming out of the musical instrument was a demon or spirit of the dead speaking in "unknown tongues."  The priest would interpret the booms and clangs to mean whatever the worshiper wanted to hear and pay for.  This message from the “gods” was also the language of the “angelic beings.”   Therefore, Paul wrote that even if it could really be done, it would have no value because there was no love in Corinth:

THOUGH I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 1Cor 13:1

Habakkuk wrote

Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, Arise, it shall teach Behold, it is laid over with gold and silver, and there is no breath at all in the midst of it. Hab 2:19

But the Lord is in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence (hold the tongue) before him. Hab 2:20

The kings which were selected were "after God's own choice" because they were needed to lead them into a different form of religion. The kings, like the law, were a curse for people who rejected the direct rule of God and demanded a pagan-like secular priest-king. Even in the wilderness, Ezekiel wrote:

I also gave them over to statutes that were not good and laws they could not live by; Eze.20:25

It is well recognized that the worship instituted by David was different from the Law of Moses by the introduction of the jubilant praise and triumph music explicitly forbidden in the Law along with kings, kingdoms and all that went with a pagan-like nation:

"The book of Psalms contain new doctrine after the Law of Moses. And after the writing of Moses, it is the second book of doctrine... (David) first gave to the Hebrews a new style of psalmody, by which he abrogates the ordinances established by Moses with respect to sacrifices,

and introduces the new hymn and a new style of jubilant praise in the worship of God; and throughout his whole ministry he teaches very many other things that went beyond the law of Moses." (Fragment of Commentary by Hippolytus, bishop of Rome, Ante-Nicene, V, p. 170)

There were a few times for rejoicing such as Jubilee which was associated with the hope for future atonement. However, the "church" or the congregation of Israel did not gather for singing with instrumental accompaniment. Worship was a state ritual and not a weekly "congregational" entertainment.  The musical worship team chosen by David and the commanders of the army were like those of the nations and "excelled" or "triumphed over" the people:

"From (th ugaritic text) come references to a class of Temple personnel designated by the term serim, who exercised functions similar to those of the Hebrew singers during the monarchy and later times. Some of the servants of David who were designated in 1 Kings 4:31 by (a) term meaning 'aboriginal' or 'native sons,' and who possessed Canaanite names such as Heman, Chalcol, and Darda, were engaged in various forms of musical activity. As such they were described by the phrase 'sons of Mahol (dancer),' a Hebrew term closely related to (the Greek), used of a semi-circular area in which the Greek chorus danced, and meaning 'members of the orchestral guild.' A further reflection of this musical interest became apparent when Megiddo was excavated and the treasure room of the royal palace was uncovered. From this area was recovered a plaque inlaid with ivory, depicting a royal personage seated on a throne. He was drinking from a small bowl, and was being entertained by a court musician who stood before him plucking the strings of a lyre." (Harrison, R. K., Introduction to the Old Testament, Eerdmans, p. 335, see p. 411).

Later clergy tried to triumph over Jesus by getting Him involved in the "orcheomai" or circular dance.

They are like children sitting in the marketplace and calling out to each other: "'We played (piped) the flute for you, and you did not dance (the choral dance); we sang a dirge, and you did not cry.' Lk 7:32

Judas, whose bag was used to "carry mouthpieces of wind instruments" would not triumph over Jesus by forcing Him into conformity with the Jewish religion which had become pagan.

A half dozen, wired-up-amplified voices have the power--was intended to replace--a literal pipe organ. The complex harmony which results, somehow reaches beyond the rational and into our animal nature to turn on "fight or flight or mating." It is this pleasing but confusing well-constructed melody which seems like fun but is really pain. Most ancient and modern commentators show that, as theatrical organs helped invent complex harmony, choirs then replaced the organ when no one dared bring an instrument into a church. 

ERASMUS wrote: "We have brought into our churches certain operatic and theatrical music; such a confused, disorderly chattering of some words as I hardly think was ever in any of the Grecian or Roman theatres. The church rings with the noise of trumpets, pipes, and dulcimers; and human voices strive to bear their part with them. Men run to church as to a theatre, to have their ears tickled. And for this end organ makers are hired with great salaries, and a company of boys, who waste all their time learning these whining tones."  (Commentary on I Cor. 14:19)

 God knew that you did not use instrumental music for worship  on your friends:

God understood that music abraded the nerves so that it was not possible to get anything but panic or some other emotion out of it. What if the Trumpet of God sounds while we are enjoying our vocal or literal trumpet-quartet? The "spiritual feeling" created by a drug high is really just music-induced endorphins.

Speaking of the love for icons (material or human images) Karen Armstrong notes that people  always believed that God could be found in music-like art. She was somewhat prophetic of the new wineskin gospels which have always popped up around the world when people lose their faith and look for a new messiah to lead them into a kingdom which will come with rapture:

"Emotion and experience are conveyed by music in a way that bypasses words and concepts... They found that God was better expressed in a work of art than in rationalistic discourse... Instead of arguing rationally about God's nature, the 'new' theology relied on direct, personal religious experience. It was impossible to know God in conceptual terms. (Armstrong, Karen, A History of God, p. 223).

Armstrong notes that Amos warned that Israel refused to enter into dialog with God and this caused their failure.

Musical Worship Teams - Military and Legalistic

When they turned the instruments intended for the enemy upon God in order to "worship like the nations," David and the commanders of the army reassigned the warrior priests and Levites to the emerging temple state.  Instrumental music which had been the tool of idolatry, prostitution or motivational-panic-warefare musicians was adapted to certain dedicatory or purification animal sacrifices focused in or around Jerusalem.  These were state worship rituals because in the nations the little people did not worship in the show-and-tell animal sacrifices. However, when the trumpets of God and the instruments of David sounded you could be sure that something--animal or principle--was being sacrificed.

When the wars were over and the "military-industrial complex" was dismantled, the warrior musicians were unemployed and you didn't want all of those loose warriors loose on the land. They were put to work in the developing temple-state like the nations which Israel wanted to follow in victory and worship. Therefore:

David, together with the commanders of the army, set apart some of the sons of Asaph, Heman and Jeduthun for the ministry of prophesying, accompanied by harps, lyres and cymbals. Here is the list of the men who performed this service: 1Chr.25:1

These men were not prophets and they were condemned by the prophets.  This prophesying was simply singing, dancing around and around, playing musical instruments and pretending that God is at work.

This was part of the legal work of the self-boasting halal level of praise for the service of the secular of civil state. Remember, that David was not a priest. The work was worship in the legalistic sense to keep the government safe.  However, it was not for the people:

Abodah (h5656) ab-o-daw'; from 5647; work of any kind: - act, bondage, / bondservant, effect, labour, ministering (-try), office, service (-ile, -itude), tillage, use, work

Isaiah redefines the nature of the work which will take place when the spirit is poured out upon the recreated earth or fruitful places:

Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest. Isa 32:15

Then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field. Isa 32:16

And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness quietness and assurance for ever. Is.32:17

The "burden" which the priests placed on the backs of the people caused "spiritual anxiety from religious ceremony."  Jesus promised rest which would be a quiet life where our service is teaching one another and caring for one another. Any loud form of “worship” attempts is simply the total loss of confidence that God can hear our own inner hymns or prayers.

There is always a difference between "the trumpets of God" and the "musical instruments of David" who was God's replacement to rule or oversee the Israelites. Music, therefore, was not just religious but civil or governmental in imitation of the nations.  Because Israel always wanted to return and worship like the Egyptians it is interesting that:

"The testimonies of neighboring civilizations... concern chiefly the music of courts or temples, which in Sumer, Babylon, and Canaan was then in the hands of professional priests-musicians. We have only a few remarks of Herodotus about Egyptian practices, which were similar to those of ancient Hebrew popular singing. He refers to the 'lament for Linos,' also to women's chants in procession of the cult of Osiris and the Diana of Bubastis. In Phonicia and Syria almost all popular music reflected the worship of Ishtar, the goddess of fertility. (Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, p. 461, Abingdon)

When the Israelites "danced" and engaged in musical "worship" of Apis at Mount Sinai, this was the same as Osiris worship and the two were merged as one god. The "women musical worship teams" repeated this in the temple in Jerusalem (Eze 8) while the men bowed to the sun in the first Easter (Ishtar) sun-rise service.

Of David, it is clear that--

"He wanted to replace the old Tent with a splendid royal temple patterned after the temples of other nations. However, the conservative religious traditions of the Confederacy was voiced by the prophet Nathan, who argued that Yahweh had not dwelt in a 'house' since the time of the Exodus but had been 'moving about in a tent' (II Sam. 7:6) So David wisely conceded to the prophet that this was going to for--at least for the time being. He contented himself himself with reorganizing Israel's religion in other spheres, especially music. According to the Chronicler (1 Chron 25) David organized the musicians into guilds." (Anderson, Bernard, A Theology of the Old Testament, p. 183)

When David tried to move the Ark of the Covenant the first time it was conducted as a religious ritual involving a called assembly of the entire "congregation" of Israel. David, along with the musical-dancing slaves disobeyed the Law (still sealed up) and moved the Ark in a religious sense with dance and music. This was identical to the Israelites at Mount Sinai who "rose up to play." As a result of the confusion, Uzzah was struck down and the Ark was abandoned for a period.

During the second move there were many Israelites there but it was not a "called assembly" of the entire nation. This time the "team" was primarily the king, the city and state officials. They were building a secular like the nations state and they imitated them to the letter. As the almost-identical sign against Saul, David fell into an ecstatic condition, stripped off his cloths and was involved in the rituals of the slave (probably prostitutes) who danced with him. Miriam understood this. As a result, the nation prevailed until after David's death but then five years after Solomon's death in a pool of pagan worship, the king of Egypt came for his gold plus interest.

The Blowing of Trumpets For Calling Jubilee Assemblies

The special seasons for blowing the trumpets, such as Jubilee, was a confession by Israel that they were still under law and they were waiting for the redemption of their souls rather than their property when the True King came as Messiah. The day of Atonement is connected with Jubilee and is a confession (or denial) that Jesus has come, has established His kingdom and that we are redeemed.

Therefore, to keep from being forced into legal Jubilees and new moons Paul declared the fundamental Christian freedom which Christ defined as "spiritual anxiety from religious ceremony":

Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: Col.2:16

"In the law of God only these two things are enjoined in the observance of the 'New Moon'--the 'blowing of trumpets' (Num 10:10) and special festive sacrifices (Num 28:11-15). Of old the 'blowing of trumpets' had been the signal for Israel's host on their march through the wilderness, as it afterwards summoned them to warfare, and proclaimed or marked days of public rejoicing, and feasts, as well as the 'beginning of their months' (Num 10:1-10). The object of it is expressly stated to have been 'for a memorial,' that they might 'be remembered before Jehovah,' it being specially added: 'I am Jehovah your God.'

“It was, so to speak, the host of God assembled, waiting for their Leader; the people of God united to proclaim their King. At the blast of the priests' trumpets (Jubals) they ranged themselves, as it were, under His banner and before His throne, and this symbolical confession and proclamation of Him as 'Jehovah their God,' brought them before Him to be 'remembered' and 'saved.' And so every season of 'blowing the trumpets,' whether at New Moons, at the Feast of Trumpets or New Year's Day, at other festivals, in the Sabbatical and Year of Jubilee, or in the time of war, was a public acknowledgment of Jehovah as King.

We are redeemed and we wait, without pressing the visible kingdom, and listen in silence with a well-tuned ear upon the watchtowers for the sound of the only remaining trumpet which will be the voice of Jesus. Literal music has always said to men like Job: "Don't speak any more about god."

"Accordingly we find the same symbols adopted in the figurative language of the New Testament. As of old the sound of the trumpet summoned the congregation before the Lord at the door of the Tabernacle, so 'His elect' shall be summoned by the sound of the trumpet in the day of Christ's coming (Matt 24:31), and not only the living, but those also who had 'slept' (1 Cor 15:52)--'the dead in Christ' (1 Thess 4:16). Similarly, the heavenly hosts are marshaled to the war of successive judgments (Rev 8:2; 10:7), till, as 'the seventh angel sounded,' Christ is proclaimed King Universal: 'The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ, and He shall reign for ever and ever' (Rev 11:15). Alfred Edersheim, Chapter 15

Therefore, the restoration of Legal Passovers, Jubilees, musical instruments or musical teams to lead the worship is the keeping of days, times and seasons. Whatever our motives we give the message common in Job, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Amos that: Musical worship is a sign to those who will not, perhaps cannot, hear the Word of God as it has been delivered without trying to make it into either patterns or paradigms to just build more walls which Christ destroyed.

Jesus freed us from the slavery of Hagar, Mount Sinai, Jerusalem and the temple:

For ye are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest, He 12:18

And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words; which voice they that heard intreated that the word should not be spoken to them any more: He 12:19

But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels, He 12:22

To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect, He 12:23

And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel. He 12:24

See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape, if we turn away from him that speaketh from heaven: He 12:25 (The Law was a result of failure to listen while they repeated their pagan worship)

Whose voice then shook the earth: but now he hath promised, saying, Yet once more I shake not the earth only, but also heaven. He 12:26

And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that are made, that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. He 12:27

Since we have a Kingdom nothing can destroy, let us please God by serving him with thankful hearts and with holy fear and awe. LIV12:28

The church assembly is not the place for show, boasting, arrogance or magic from either song or sermon. Rather, the assembly is Christ's visual aid to our children and the community. Church is not a Jewish ritual but a family gathering. The older, sober, reverent men of ability are to function as the "father" of the family. Women's teaching role is to display soberness which was directly opposite the pagan women who sang, danced and played musical instruments as the universal, head-uncovered message: "I can be had after worship."

The women should not sink to the level of some men and rather seek to model this role which is much more glorious and instructive than effeminate boasting, dancing around the stage, slinging arms and musically spewing out ones own words.

Awe or reverence is:

Aidos (g127) ahee-doce'; perh. from 1 (as a neg. particle) and 1492 (through the idea of downcast eyes); bashfulness, i.e. (towards men), modesty or (towards God) awe: - reverence, shamefacedness.

In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamedfacedness and sobriety; not with braided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; 1Ti.2:9

Ezekiel will restate this prohibition of literal instrumental music.

Jesus Does Not Call Jubilees of Feasts of Tabernacles or Days of Atonement

Let us hear Paul again:

Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: Col.2:16

All of these festivals were so that men not faithful to their tribe or their God might be remembered by God. This was prophetic of the final (and the last for true Christians) Passover or Jubilee. However, if the kingdom has not come, is still fermenting wine and needs a new wineskin then we can understand the legalistic "calling of assemblies" which was not Christian:

BEHOLD my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles. Is 42:1

He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in the street. Is 42:2

A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth. Is 42:3

He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law. Is 42:4

To Cry out is to call a great Jubilee-like assembly:

Caaq (h6817) tsaw-ak'; a prim. root; to shriek; (by impl.) to proclaim (an assembly): -  at all, call together, cry (out), gather selves together.

The sound He will not make is defined by Amos who condemned replacing the Word with music:

But I will send a fire upon Moab, and it shall devour the palaces of Kirioth: and Moab shall die with tumult, with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet: Amos 2:2

True evangelists of this new order will not gather assemblies to toot their little horns: they will go into all the world to relieve spiritual hunger and thirst taken away by the musical worship in Israel (Amos 5; 6; 8). God put His Spirit and His Breath into all mankind. The task of the church is to help redeem the spirits of those far away from mass assemblies:

Thus saith God the Lord, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: Isa 42:5

I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; Isa 42:6

To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house. Isa 42:7

Messiah would give a new Song and a new Method

 I am the Lord (Jehovah); that is my name: and my glory will I not give to another, neither my praise to graven images. Is 42:8

Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. Is 42:9

Sing unto the Lord a new song (does not include instruments), and his praise (Hymn and not halal) from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein; the isles, and the inhabitants thereof. Isa 42:10

 The praise of insecurity was often with musical instruments. It was a pagan-like boasting before God to force Him to come to attention and take care of your problems. This praise, so popular in Jubilee-like assemblies, was:

Halal (h1984) haw-lal'; a prim. root; to be clear (orig. of sound, but usually of color); to shine; hence to make a show, to boast; and thus to be (clamorously) foolish; to rave; causat. to celebrate; also to stultify: - (make) boast (self), celebrate, commend, (deal, make), fool (- ish, -ly), glory, give [light], be (make, feign self) mad (against), give in marriage, [sing, be worthy of] praise, rage, renowned, shine.

The praise directed to self with musical instruments is explained by:

Tohflah (h8417) to-hol-aw'; fem. of an unused noun (appar. from 1984) mean. bluster; braggadocio, i. e. (by impl.) fatuity: - folly. (Lucifer is derived from this word)

Shall mortal man be more just than God? shall a man be more pure than his maker? Jb 4:17

Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly: Jb 4:18

How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth? Jb 4:19

However, the praise of Jesus or Jehovah-Savior is

Tehillah (h8416) teh-hil-law'; from 1984; laudation; spec. (concr.) a hymn: - praise.

My praise shall be of thee in the great congregation: I will pay my vows before them that fear him. Ps.22:25

This is from the Messianic Psalm Jesus quoted as He was being forsaken by His Spirit Father. Jesus confirmed this conclusion about praise by condemning the Jews as children piping to force Him into the Greek triumphal dance.

In the great congregation called for praising Jesus rather than the speaker or musical worship team is the same word where the joyful shouting or making a joyful sound was forbidden by God:

But when the congregation is to be gathered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall not sound an alarm. Nu.10:7 (play and shout for joy)

Music Cannot Resurrect a Dead Church

When Jesus entered the ruler's house and saw the flute players and the noisy crowd, Mat 9:23NIV

he said, "Go away. The girl is not dead but asleep." But they laughed at him. Mat 9:24KJV

After the crowd had been put outside (more or less violently), he went in and took the girl by the hand, and she got up. Mat 9:25

The professional musicians, usually women, tried to profane Jesus by forcing Him into the choral dance of Dionysos, probably naked.  Now, the professional mourners are trying to get the tears rolling so that the spirit of the dead girl will understand that we loved her. Therefore, she will not harm us in her ghost state.

These women were not the brightest and best of any nation

"The female flute-players, usually dissolute characters, were indispensable attendants at the Greek banquets. Plato in 'the Symposium' has the character say: 'I move that the flute-girl who has just made her appearance, be told to go away and play to herself, or, if she likes, to the women who are within. Today let us have conversation instead."

Again, Socrates says: 'The talk about the poets seems to me like a commonplace entertainment to which a vulgar company have recourse; who, because they are not able to converse and amuse one another, while they are drinking, with the sound of their own voices and conversation, by reason of their stupidity, raise the price of flute-girls in the market, hiring for a great sum the voice of a flute instead of their own breath, to be the medium of intercourse among them." (Vincent, Pipers, Rev. 18:2).

See Part One


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