Psallo in the Septuagint Old Textament
Yes, I say that psallo never means "playing on a harp." Psallo would supply the PLUCKING with the fingers but psallo could mean plucking out hair. The WHAT has to be named as the HARP.
This is backup material for a review of Danny Corbitt promoting the use of instrumental music.
Just like the word song, a Psalmos
A song which can be read or recitedThe Psalms were not metrical and could not be sung "tunefully" until congregational singing was imposed after the Reformation and the Psalms (only) had to be radically rewritten.
Accompanies by the VOICE
or other musical instrument
The instrument is ALWAYS named so we have no evidence that psallo MEANS play a harp. What the lexicons provide is not a definition but HOW the word is used. In the following passages from the Old Testament there is no aid and comfort to the instrumentalists but truly marks them as engaging in spiritual or literal warfare. These are rough notes.
"Already, look you! the presumption of these Bacchantes is upon us, swift as fire, a sad disgrace in the eyes of all Hellas. No time for hesitation now! away to the Electra gate! order a muster of all my men-at-arms, of those that mount fleet steeds, of all who brandish light bucklers, of archers too that make the bowstring twang; for I will march against the Bacchanals. By Heaven this passes all, if we are to be thus treated by women."
psallousi neuras, h˘s epistrateusomenbakchaisin: ou gar all' huperballei tade,
ei pros gunaik˘n peisomesth' ha paschomen.
From Liddel and Scott which links to the actual uses but DOES NOT DEFINE
First reference is Judges 5:3 LXX
Judg. 5:1 Then sang Deborah and Barak the son of Abinoam on that day, saying,Here you psallo with your MOUTH which in song or psalmost is the first instrument of choice.
Judg. 5:2 Praise ye the LORD for the avenging of Israel, when the people willingly offered themselves.
Judg. 5:3 Hear, O ye kings; give ear, O ye princes;
I, even I, will SING unto the LORD;
I will sing praise to the LORD God of Israel.
Always, what is to be plucked MUST BE named. Psallo does not mean 'Play on a harp." Psallo means touch or pluck. Harp defines WHAT isa to be plucked.
1Sam. 16:16 Let our lord now command thy servants, which are before thee, to seek out a man,That's good: you are bound to play with your fingers and NOT with a plectrum. The word psallo turns and bites you if you pick a guitar or use any other musical instrument. You can psallo with a bow or pluck out the elder's hair.
who is a cunning  player on an  harp:
and it shall come to pass, when the evil spirit from God is upon thee,
that he shall  play with his  hand, and thou shalt be well.
The word hear can be used in a good or evil sense: knowing can mean in a sexual sense or in some kind of "seeing beyond the sacred page."
CUNNING carries some of the meaning of enchantment: David needed Saul to go away. Remember that his job involved the worship of the starry host and he had no hesitation in making sure all of Saul's viable DNA was slaughtered even one as a human sacrifice. David confesed to making himself vile with the camp following girls: his playing and dancing proves that he was enacting some kind of cosmic performance since his nation worshipped the starry host. His ephod is defined as a stole with a hole in it and represents the Babylonian vulva.
This was rough politics and not a WORSHIP SERVICE. In the Greek world cunning includes:
Kŕle˘, A. charm, bewitch, beguile, esp. by music epaid˘n k. charm by incantation, kŕleitai aoidais, of an orator such as Pericles.David Psalloed ON a harp. And He Psalloed WITH his hand. That is because PSALLO means
Aoide singing spell, incantations
Epaeid˘ means to sing AND play 2. sing as an incantation, sing to one so as to charm or soothe him, use charms or incantations, by means of charms
Pindar, Odes 4: Aphrodite [ZOE] of Cyprus brought the maddening bird to men for the first time, and she taught the son of Aeson skill in prayerful incantations, so that he could rob Medea of reverence for her parents, and a longing for Greece would lash her, her mind on fire, with the whip of Persuasion.  And she quickly revealed the means of performing the labors set by her father; and she mixed drugs with olive oil as a remedy for hard pains, and gave it to him to anoint himself. They agreed to be united with each other in sweet wedlock
Eph 4:14 That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro,
and carried about with every wind of doctrine,
by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness whereby they lie in wait to deceive;
Panourgia (g3834) pan-oorg-ee'-ah; from 3835; adroitness, i.e. (in a bad sense) trickery or sophistry: - (cunning) craftiness, subtilty.
Sophis-tikos Artistic or poetic, This includes the techne or craftsmen who perform as sorcerers
Xenophon. For there is not, and there never was, a wise man among them; everyone of them is content to be called a sophist, which is a term of reproach among sensible men. So my advice is:Sophistes. A.master of one's craft, adept, expert, of diviners, poets, of harp player, in a bad sense a quibbler or cheat. divinely sounding Melos melody of a lyric poem, melody of an instrument, Apollo's harp, the pipe etc.
Avoid the behests of the sophists, and despise not the conclusions of the philosophers; for the sophists hunt the rich and young, but the philosophers are friends to all alike: but as for men's fortunes, they neither honour nor despise them.
A. Sophos A.skilled in any handicraft or art, clever, mostly of poets and musicians, guitar players, techne,
Pindar, Olympian 1.
B. Techne cunning, craftiness of a soothsayer, 3.way, manner, or means whereby a thing is gained, without any definite sense of art or craft, poetry, rhetoric
Pindar, Olympian 1.Water is best, and gold, like a blazing fire in the night, stands out supreme of all lordly wealth. But if, my heart, you wish to sing of contests, look no further for any star warmer than the sun, shining by day through the lonely sky, and let us not proclaim any contest greater than Olympia. From there glorious song enfolds the wisdom of poets, so that they loudly sing the son of Cronus, when they arrive at the rich and blessed hearth of Hieron, who wields the scepter of law in Sicily of many flocks, reaping every excellence at its peak, and is glorified by the choicest music, which we men often play around his hospitable table. Come, take the Dorian lyre down from its peg, if the splendor of Pisa and of Pherenicus placed your mind under the influence of sweetest thoughts,
Rev. 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman [techne, professionals], of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
Rev. 18:23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
Rev. 18:24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.
Clement Against Heresies
To me, therefore, that Thracian Orpheus, that Theban, and that Methymnaean,-men, and yet unworthy of the name,-seem to have been deceivers,
who, under the pretence of poetry corrupting human life, possessed by a spirit of artful sorcery for purposes of destruction, celebrating crimes in their orgies, and making human woes the materials of religious worship, were the first to entice men to idols;
nay, to build up the stupidity of the nations with blocks of wood and stone,-
that is, statues and images,-
subjecting to the yoke of extremest bondage the truly noble freedom
of those who lived as free citizens under heaven
by their songs and incantations.
Technites (h5079) tekh-nee'-tace; from 5078; an artisan; fig. a founder (Creator): - builder, craftsman.
For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, which made silver shrines for Diana, brought no small gain unto the craftsmen; Ac.19:24And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee; Rev 18:22
C. The hypocrites:
hupokrin˘ reply, make answer, of an oracle, 2. expound, interpret, explain [Peter outlawed this as private interpretation.] 2. deliver a speech, declaim, of orators and rhetoricians, represent dramatically, er˘tik˘n dramat˘n 3. of an orator, use histrionic arts, exaggerate, hence play a part on the stage, 3. of an orator, use histrionic arts, exaggerate,
trag˘idoi * I. properly, a goat-singer [Cappella]
Latin canto I. Neutr., to produce melodious sounds (by the voice or an instrument), to sound, sing, play (class. in prose and poetry; to sing and play while the actor accompanies the song with gestures or dancing, C. Transf., of instruments, to sound, resound:
play a stringed instrument with the fingers
and NOT with the plectron
Second use in the LXX Psalms 9.
I will give thanks to Yahweh with my whole heart.Psallo:Third use etheiran pluck the hair, A.Pers.1062
I will tell of all your marvelous works.
I will be glad and rejoice in you.
I will SING praise to your name, O Most High.
And with your fingers tear the robe which drapes you. Chorus
Pluck [psallo] out your locks, and lament our host.
With clenched nails, with clenched nails, with loud wailing.
esp. of the bow-string, tox˘n cheri psallousi neuras twang them, E.Ba.784; kenonkroton
 Bacchae: Already like fire does this insolence of the Bacchae blaze up, a great reproach for the Hellenes.Psallo:  ekkeraos ps. belos send a shaft twanging from the bow
But we must not hesitate. Go to the Electran gates, bid all the shield-bearers and riders of swift-footed horses to assemble, as well as all who brandish the light shield and pluck bowstrings with their hands, so that we can make an assault against the Bacchae. For it is indeed too much if we suffer what we are suffering at the hands of women.
Psallo: so miltocharŕs schoinos psallomenŕ a carpenter's red line, which is twitched and then suddenly let go, so as to leave a mark
In fact, this identifies the PSALLO ROPE which was polluted with red paint. When it was time for the Ekklesia (church) the members loved to dally around the singers, dancers, players and prostitutes in the Agora or market place. That is where Jesus consigned the pipers, singers and dancers.
Miltophurŕs [phur˘] daubed with red, Anth.
Phur˘ I. to mix something dry with something wet, mostly with a sense of mixing so as to soil or defile, Pass., dakrusi pephurmenŕ id=Il.; haimati oikos ephurthŕ Aesch.
2. of dry things, konei phurousa kara Eur.; gaiai pephursesthai koman to be doomed to have one's hair defiled with earth, Pind.
II. metaph. to mingle together, confuse, thŕri˘dous from a confused and savage state,thŕri˘dŕs I. full of wild beasts, infested by them, Lat. belluosus
See how the polluted red rope MARKED people who were late attending the ekklesia.
Gregory Nazianzen For what they worship as true, they veil as mythical. But if these things are true, they ought not to be called myths, but to be proved not to be shameful; and if they are false, they ought not to be objects of wonder; nor ought people so inconsiderately to hold the most contrary opinions about the same thing,
as if they were playing in the market-place with boys or really ill-disposed men, [Rom 15]
not engaged in discussion with men of sense, and worshippers of the Word,
though despisers of this artificial plausibility. [Rom 15]PSALLO IS A MARK: Several means were used to force citizens to attend the assemblies; the shops were closed; circulation was only permitted in those streets which led to the Pnyx; finally, a rope covered with vermilion was drawn round those who dallied in the Agora (the market-place), and the late-comers, ear- marked by the imprint of the rope, were fined.Even in civil society the second major use of the PSALLO word disqualifies you from entering into the church. In the Temple as time if a singer or instrument player went into or near a holy place they would be executed.
Another view: A gang of slaves, called Scythians, carrying ropes dipped in red ochre (miltos, hence Miltiades, i.e. the Red-Haired) would travel through the city on the days the Ecclesia was to meet, and would lash those citizens not in attendance with their ropes. With garments thus stained, shamed citizens could legally carry out no business until they visited the meeting grounds of the Ecclesia on the hill called the Pnyx.
Psallo: As a metaphor for men and women who were doing bad things. Of people shooting from an empty arrow (double meaning)
The rich man and the poor man alike travel together to the boundary of death.Psallo: The second major use of Psallo II: II. mostly of the strings of musical instruments,
And I expect that the story of Odysseus came to exceed his experiences, through the sweet songs of Homer, since there is a certain solemnity in his lies and winged artfulness, and poetic skill deceives, seducing us with stories, and the heart of the mass of men is blind. For if they had been able to see the truth, then mighty Aias, in anger over the arms, would never have planted in his chest the smooth sword</i>
play a stringed instrument with the fingers
and NOT with the plectron
WAY DOWN THE LIST NOTICE THAT DAVID PLAYED THE HARP WITH HIS HAND: HE DID NOT SING
Psallo: 2. later, sing to a harp Psalm 7:18 The word is psallam but it is translates SING.
And with an important semicolon
If a man doesn't relent, he will sharpen his sword; He has bent and strung his bow. He has also prepared for himself the instruments of death. He makes ready his flaming arrows. Behold, he travails with iniquity; Yes, he has conceived mischief, And brought forth falsehood. He has dug a hole, And has fallen into the pit which he made. The trouble he causes shall return to his own head. His violence shall come down on the crown of his own head. I will give thanks to Yahweh according to his righteousness, And will SING praise to the name of Yahweh Most High.
Psallo: Ephesians 5:19 sing in the heart
When you see psallo WITHOUT an instrument being named it always means SING.
So, we are STUCK: Psallo applies only to a STRINGED instrument and it must be PLUCKED or PULLED with the finger and NOT with the PLECTRUM. Psallo OUTLAWS guitar picks, pianos, organs, flutes, trumpets, or drums.
Psallo outlaws MOST of what is used to destroy the ACADEMY status with "machines."
Dr. A. T. Robertson: "The word (psalleto) originally meant to play on a stringed instrument (Sir. 9:4), but it comes to be used also for singing with the voice and heart (Eph. 5:19; 1 Cor. 14:15), making melody with the heart also to the Lord." (Comment on James 5:13, Studies In The Epistle James, via Earl Robertson, "Instrumental Music In Worship," p. 25)
2. Do not give yourself to a woman so that she gains mastery over your strength.
3. Do not go to meet a loose woman, lest you fall into her snares.
4. Do not associate with a woman singer, lest you be caught in her intrigues.
47:8. In all that he did he gave thanks to the Holy One, the Most High, with ascriptions of glory;
........... he sang praise with all his heart, and he loved his Maker.
9. He placed singers before the altar,
........... to make sweet melody with their voices.
Trumpets To Signal Animal Sacrifices.13. all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lord's offering in their hands, before the whole congregation of Israel.
14. Finishing the service at the altars, and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty,
15. he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar, a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work, they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High.17. Then all the people together made haste andfell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord, the Almighty, God Most High.18. And the singers praised him
with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody.
Wine and music gladden the heart,but the love of wisdom is better than both. Sirach 40:20.The flute and the harp make pleasant melody,
but a pleasant voice is better than both. Sirach 40 21.
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia: "But this argument would prove that it is as much a duty to play as to sing in worship. It is questionable whether, as used in the New Testament, 'psallo' means more than to sing....The absence of instrumental music from the church for some centuries after the apostles and the sentiment regarding it which pervades the writing of the fathers are unaccountable, if in the apostolic church such music was used." (Vol. 3, p. 1961, via Robertson, pp. 21-22)